Gay literature is a collective term for literature produced by or for the LGBT community, or which involves characters, plot lines or themes portraying male homosexual behavior. The term is now used most commonly to cover specifically gay male literature, with a separate genre of lesbian literature existing for women, although historically the term "gay literature" was sometimes used to cover both gay male and lesbian literatures.
In a historical sense, literature as we understand it is a fairly new innovation, and the current concept of homosexuality is even fresher from the cultural oven. It's no great surprise, then, that gay literature — or even gay characters in literature — are so relatively new as to still be shiny.— Kilian Meloy, "Influential Gay Characters in Literature" (2007)
Overview and history
Because of the frequent persecution or opposition to homosexuality in many world cultures throughout history, LGBT individuals have often turned to literature as a source of validation, understanding, and beautification of same-sex attraction. LGBT literature may also document the psychological stresses and alienation suffered by the gay community as LGBT individuals confront such challenges as prejudice, AIDS, self-loathing, bullying, violence, religious condemnation, denial, suicide, persecution, and other such obstacles.
Themes of love between individuals of the same gender can be found in a variety of ancient texts throughout the world. The ancient Greeks, in particular, explored the theme on a variety of different levels in such works as Plato's Symposium.
Many mythologies and religious narratives include stories of romantic affection or sexuality between men, or feature divine actions that result in changes in gender. These myths have been interpreted as forms of LGBT expression, and modern conceptions of sexuality and gender have been applied to them. Myths have been used by individual cultures, in part, to explain and validate their particular social institutions, or to explain the cause of transgenderism or homosexuality.
In classical mythology, male lovers were attributed to ancient Greek gods and heroes such as Zeus, Apollo, Poseidon and Heracles (including Ganymede, Hyacinth, Nerites and Hylas, respectively) as a reflection and validation of the tradition of pederasty.
Though Homer did not explicitly portray the heroes Achilles and Patroclus as homosexual lovers in his 8th century BC Trojan War epic, the Iliad, later ancient authors presented the intense relationship as such. In his 5th century BC lost tragedy The Myrmidons, Aeschylus casts Achilles and Patroclus as pederastic lovers. In a surviving fragment of the play, Achilles speaks of "our frequent kisses" and a "devout union of the thighs". Plato does the same in his Symposium (385–370 BC); the speaker Phaedrus cites Aeschylus and holds Achilles up as an example of how people will be more brave and even sacrifice themselves for their lovers. In his oration Against Timarchus, Aeschines argues that though Homer "hides their love and avoids giving a name to their friendship", Homer assumed that educated readers would understand the "exceeding greatness of their affection". Plato's Symposium also includes a creation myth that explains homo- and heterosexuality (Aristophanes speech) and celebrates the pederastic tradition and erotic love between men (Pausanias speech), as does another of his dialogues, Phaedrus.
The tradition of pederasty in ancient Greece (as early as 650 BC) and later the acceptance of limited homosexuality in ancient Rome infused an awareness of male-male attraction and sex into ancient poetry. In the second of Virgil's Eclogues (1st century BC), the shepherd Corydon proclaims his love for the boy Alexis. Some of the erotic poetry of Catullus in the same century is directed at other men (Carmen 48, 50, and 99), and in a wedding hymn (Carmen 61) he portrays a male concubine about to be supplanted by his master's future wife. The first line of his infamous invective Carmen 16 — which has been called "one of the filthiest expressions ever written in Latin—or in any other language, for that matter" — contains explicit homosexual sex acts.
The Satyricon by Petronius is a Latin work of fiction detailing the misadventures of Encolpius and his lover, a handsome and promiscuous sixteen-year-old servant boy named Giton. Written in the 1st century AD during the reign of Nero, it is the earliest known text of its kind depicting homosexuality.
Antonio Rocco's Alcibiades the Schoolboy, published anonymously in 1652, is an Italian dialogue written as a defense of homosexual sodomy. The first such explicit work known to be written since ancient times, its intended purpose as a "Carnivalesque satire", a defense of pederasty, or a work of pornography is unknown, and debated.
18th and 19th centuries
The era known as the Age of Enlightenment (1650s to 1780s) gave rise to, in part, a general challenge to the traditional doctrines of society in Western Europe. A particular interest in the Classical era of Greece and Rome "as a model for contemporary life" put the Greek appreciation of nudity, the male form and male friendship (and the inevitable homoerotic overtones) into art and literature. It was common for gay authors at this time to include allusions to Greek mythological characters as a code that homosexual readers would recognize. Gay men of the period "commonly understood ancient Greece and Rome to be societies where homosexual relationships were tolerated and even encouraged," and references to those cultures might identify an author or book's sympathy with gay readers and gay themes but probably be overlooked by straight readers. Despite the "increased visibility of queer behavior" and prospering networks of male prostitution in cities like Paris and London, homosexual activity had been outlawed in England (and by extension, the United States) as early as the Buggery Act 1533. Across much of Europe in the 1700s and 1800s, the legal punishment for sodomy was death, making it dangerous to publish or distribute anything with overt gay themes. James Jenkins of Valancourt Books noted:
These sorts of coded, subtextual ways of writing about homosexuality were often necessary, since up until the 1950s British authors could be prosecuted for writing openly about homosexuality, and in the U.S., authors and publishers could also face legal action and suppression of their books, not to mention social or moral condemnation that might end an author's career."
Many early Gothic fiction authors, like Matthew Lewis, William Thomas Beckford and Francis Lathom, were homosexual, and would sublimate these themes and express them in more acceptable forms, using transgressive genres like Gothic and horror fiction. The title character of Lewis's The Monk (1796) falls in love with young novice Rosario, and though Rosario is later revealed to be a woman named Matilda, the gay subtext is clear. A similar situation occurs in Charles Maturin's The Fatal Revenge (1807) when the valet Cyprian asks his master, Ippolito, to kiss him as though he were Ippolito's female lover; later Cyprian is also revealed to be a woman. In Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer (1820), the close friendship between a young monk and a new novice is scrutinized as potentially "too like love." Sheridan Le Fanu's novella Carmilla (1872) basically invented the lesbian vampire story, and influenced Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897). Stoker's novel has its own homoerotic aspects, as when Count Dracula warns off the female vampires and claims Jonathan Harker, saying "This man belongs to me!"
A Year in Arcadia: Kyllenion (1805) by Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg is "the earliest known novel that centers on an explicitly male-male love affair". Set in ancient Greece, the German novel features several couples—including a homosexual one—falling in love, overcoming obstacles and living happily ever after. The Romantic movement gaining momentum at the end of the 18th century allowed men to "express deep affection for each other", and the motif of ancient Greece as "a utopia of male-male love" was an acceptable vehicle to reflect this, but some of Duke August's contemporaries felt that his characters "stepped over the bounds of manly affection into unseemly eroticism." The first American gay novel was Joseph and His Friend: A Story of Pennsylvania (1870) by Bayard Taylor, the story of a newly engaged young man who finds himself instead falling in love with another man. Robert K. Martin called it "quite explicit in its adoption of a political stance toward homosexuality" and notes that the character Philip "argues for the 'rights' of those 'who cannot shape themselves according to the common-place pattern of society.'"
The new "atmosphere of frankness" created by the Enlightenment sparked the production of pornography like John Cleland's infamous Fanny Hill (1749), which features a rare graphic scene of male homosexual sex. Published anonymously a century later, The Sins of the Cities of the Plain (1881) and Teleny, or The Reverse of the Medal (1893) are two of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality. The Sins of the Cities of the Plain is about a male prostitute, and set in London around the time of the Cleveland Street Scandal and the Oscar Wilde trials. Teleny, chronicling a passionate affair between a Frenchman and a Hungarian pianist, is often attributed to a collaborative effort by Wilde and some of his contemporaries. Wilde's more mainstream The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890) still shocked readers with its sensuality and overtly homosexual characters. Drew Banks called Dorian Gray a groundbreaking gay character because he was "one of the first in a long list of hedonistic fellows whose homosexual tendencies secured a terrible fate."
By the 20th century, discussion of homosexuality became more open and society's understanding of it evolved. A number of novels with explicitly gay themes and characters began to appear in the domain of mainstream or art literature.
Nobel Prize-winner André Gide's semi-autobiographical novel The Immoralist (1902) finds a newly married man reawakened by his attraction to a series of young Arab boys. Though Bayard Taylor's Joseph and His Friend (1870) had been the first American gay novel, Edward Prime-Stevenson's Imre: A Memorandum (1906) was the first in which the homosexual couple were happy and united at the end. Initially published privately under the pseudonym "Xavier Mayne", it tells the story of a British aristocrat and a Hungarian soldier whose new friendship turns into love. In Thomas Mann's 1912 novella Death in Venice, a tightly wound, aging writer finds himself increasingly infatuated with a young Polish boy. Marcel Proust's serialized novel In Search of Lost Time (1913–27) and Gide's The Counterfeiters (1925) also explore homosexual themes.
British author E.M. Forster earned a prominent reputation as a novelist while concealing his own homosexuality from the broader British public. In 1913-14, he privately penned Maurice, a bildungsroman that follows a young, upper-middle-class man through the self-discovery of his own attraction to other men, two relationships, and his interactions with an often uncomprehending or hostile society. The book is notable for its affirming tone and happy ending. "A happy ending was imperative," wrote Forster, "...I was determined that in fiction anyway, two men should fall in love and remain in it for the ever and ever that fiction allows ... Happiness is its keynote." The book was not published until 1971, after Forster's death. William J. Mann said of the novel, "[Alec Scudder of Maurice was] a refreshingly unapologetic young gay man who was not an effete Oscar Wilde aristocrat, but rather a working class, masculine, ordinary guy ... an example of the working class teaching the privileged class about honesty and authenticity — a bit of a stereotype now, but back then quite extraordinary."
Blair Niles's Strange Brother (1931), about the platonic relationship between a heterosexual woman and a gay man in New York City in the late 1920s and early 1930s, is an early, objective exploration of homosexual issues during the Harlem Renaissance. Though praised for its journalistic approach, sympathetic nature and promotion of tolerance and compassion, the novel has been numbered among a group of early gay novels that is "cast in the form of a tragic melodrama" and, according to editor and author Anthony Slide, illustrates the "basic assumption that gay characters in literature must come to a tragic end." Slide names only four familiar gay novels of the first half of the 20th century in English: Djuna Barnes' Nightwood (1936), Carson McCullers' Reflections in a Golden Eye (1941), Truman Capote's Other Voices, Other Rooms (1948) and Gore Vidal's The City and the Pillar (1948).
The story of a young man who is coming of age and discovers his own homosexuality, The City and the Pillar is significant because it is recognized as the first post-World War II novel whose openly gay and well-adjusted protagonist is not killed off at the end of the story for defying social norms. It is also recognized as one of the "definitive war-influenced gay novels", being one of the few books of its period dealing directly with male homosexuality. The City and the Pillar has also been called "the most notorious of the gay novels of the 1940s and 1950s." It sparked a public scandal, including notoriety and criticism, not only since it was released at a time when homosexuality was commonly considered immoral, but also because it was the first book by an accepted American author to portray overt homosexuality as a natural behavior. Upon its release, The New York Times would not advertise the novel and Vidal was blacklisted to the extent that no major newspaper or magazine would review any of his novels for six years. Modern scholars note the importance of the novel to the visibility of gay literature. Michael Bronski points out that "gay-male-themed books received greater critical attention than lesbian ones" and that "writers such as Gore Vidal were accepted as important American writers, even when they received attacks from homophobic critics." Ian Young notes that social disruptions of World War II changed public morals, and lists The City and the Pillar among a spate of war novels that use the military as backdrop for overt homosexual behavior.
Other notable works of the 1940s and 1950s include Jean Genet's semiautobiographical Our Lady of the Flowers (1943) and The Thief's Journal (1949), Yukio Mishima's Confessions of a Mask (1949), and Giovanni's Room (1956) by James Baldwin. Mary Renault's The Charioteer, a 1953 British war novel about homosexual men in and out of the military, quickly became a bestseller within the gay community. Renault's historical novels The Last of the Wine (1956) — about Athenian pederasty in ancient Greece — and The Persian Boy (1972) — about Alexander the Great and his slave lover Bagoas — followed suit. A Room in Chelsea Square (1958) by British author Michael Nelson — about a wealthy gentleman who lures an attractive younger man to London with the promise of an upper crust lifestyle — was originally published anonymously both because of its explicit gay content at a time when homosexuality was still illegal, and because its characters were "thinly veiled portrayals of prominent London literary figures."
A key element of Allen Drury's 1959 bestselling and Pulitzer Prize-winning political novel Advise and Consent is the blackmailing of young US senator Brigham Anderson, who is hiding a secret wartime homosexual tryst. In 2009, The Wall Street Journal's Scott Simon wrote of Drury that "the conservative Washington novelist was more progressive than Hollywood liberals," noting that the character Anderson is "candid and unapologetic" about his affair, and even calling him "Drury's most appealing character". Frank Rich wrote in The New York Times in 2005:
For a public official to be identified as gay in the Washington of the 50's and 60's meant not only career suicide but also potentially actual suicide. Yet Drury, a staunchly anti-Communist conservative of his time, regarded the character as sympathetic, not a villain. The senator's gay affair, he wrote, was "purely personal and harmed no one else."
Drury later wrote about the unrequited love of one male astronaut for another in his 1971 novel The Throne of Saturn, and in his two-part tale of ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's attempt to change Egyptian religion—A God Against the Gods (1976) and Return to Thebes (1977)—Akhenaten's romance with his brother Smenkhkara contributes to his downfall. Tormented homosexual North McAllister is one of the ensemble of Alpha Zeta fraternity brothers and their families that Drury follows over the course of 60 years in his University novels (1990-1998), as well as René Suratt — villain and "bisexual seducer of students" — and the tragic lovers Amos Wilson and Joel. Assessing Drury's body of work in 1999, Erik Tarloff suggested in The New York Times that "homosexuality does appear to be the only minority status to which Drury seems inclined to accord much sympathy."
James Baldwin followed Giovanni's Room with Another Country (1962), a "controversial bestseller" that "explicitly combines racial and sexual protests ... structured around the lives of eight racially, regionally, socioeconomically, and sexually diverse characters." John Rechy's City of Night (1963) and Numbers (1967) are graphic tales of male hustlers; City of Night has been called a "landmark novel" that "marked a radical departure from all other novels of its kind, and gave voice to a subculture that had never before been revealed with such acuity." Claude J. Summers wrote of Christopher Isherwood's A Single Man (1964):
A Single Man more fully develops the context of gay oppression than do [Isherwood's] earlier novels ... To portray homosexuals as simply another tribe in a nation comprising many different tribes is both to soften the stigma linked to homosexuality and to encourage solidarity among gay people. And by associating the mistreatment of homosexuals with the discrimination suffered by other minorities in America, Isherwood legitimizes the grievances of gay people at a time when homosexuals were not recognized either as a genuine minority or as valuable members of the human community. Presaging the gay liberation movement, A Single Man presents homosexuality as simply a human variation that should be accorded value and respect and depicts homosexuals as a group whose grievances should be redressed.
George Baxt's A Queer Kind of Death (1966) introduced Pharaoh Love, the first gay black detective in fiction. The novel was met with considerable acclaim, and The New York Times critic Anthony Boucher wrote, "This is a detective story, and unlike any other that you have read. No brief review can attempt to convey its quality. I merely note that it deals with a Manhattan subculture wholly devoid of ethics or morality, that staid readers may well find it 'shocking', that it is beautifully plotted and written with elegance and wit ... and that you must under no circumstances miss it." Love would be the central figure in two immediate sequels Swing Low Sweet Harriet (1967) and Topsy and Evil (1968) and also two later novels, A Queer Kind of Love (1994) and A Queer Kind of Umbrella (1995). In his controversial 1968 satire Myra Breckinridge, Gore Vidal explored the mutability of gender-role and sexual-orientation as being social constructs established by social mores, making the eponymous heroine a transsexual waging a "war against gender roles".
Though Thomas Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow (1973) was unanimously recommended by the Pulitzer Prize fiction jury to receive the 1974 award, the Pulitzer board chose instead to make no award that year. In 2005 TIME named the novel one of its "All-TIME 100 Greatest Novels", a list of the best English language novels from 1923 to 2005. Other notable novels from the 1970s include Manuel Puig's Kiss of the Spider Woman (1976), Andrew Holleran's Dancer from the Dance (1978), and Tales of the City, the first volume of Armistead Maupin's long-running Tales of the City series.
In the 1980s, Edmund White — who had cowritten the 1977 gay sex manual The Joy of Gay Sex — published the semiautobiographical novels A Boy's Own Story (1982) and The Beautiful Room Is Empty (1988). Bret Easton Ellis also came to prominence with Less Than Zero (1985), The Rules of Attraction (1987) and later American Psycho (1991).
In the twenty-first century, much of LGBT literature has achieved a high level of sophistication and many works have earned mainstream acclaim. Notable authors include Alan Hollinghurst, André Aciman, Michael Cunningham, Michael Chabon, Colm Tóibín, Sarah Waters and Jamie O'Neill. LGBT themes have also become more visible in a growing body of high-quality young adult literature, with notable authors including Alex Sanchez, Stephen Chbosky, Shyam Selvadurai, Perry Moore, and David Levithan.
Gay pulp fiction or gay pulps, refers to printed works, primarily fiction, that include references to male homosexuality, specifically male gay sex, and that are cheaply produced, typically in paperback books made of wood pulp paper; lesbian pulp fiction is similar work about women. Michael Bronski, the editor of an anthology of gay pulp writing, notes in his introduction, "Gay pulp is not an exact term, and it is used somewhat loosely to refer to a variety of books that had very different origins and markets" People often use the term to refer to the "classic" gay pulps that were produced before about 1970, but it may also be used to refer to the gay erotica or pornography in paperback book or digest magazine form produced since that date.
Homosexuality in speculative fiction refers to the incorporation of homosexual themes into science fiction, fantasy, horror fiction and related genres which together constitute speculative fiction. Such elements may include a lesbian, gay, bisexual or transsexual (LGBT) character as the protagonist or a major character, or exploration of varieties of sexual experience that deviate from the conventional.
Science fiction and fantasy have traditionally been puritanical genres aimed at a male readership, and can be more restricted than non-genre literature by their conventions of characterisation and the effect that these conventions have on depictions of sexuality and gender. During the pulp magazine era (1920s-30s), explicit sexuality of any kind was rare in genre science fiction and fantasy. Then, according to Joanna Russ, in the more relaxed Golden Age of Science Fiction (1940s-50s) the genre "resolutely ignored the whole subject" of homosexuality. Some writers were able to introduce more explicit sexuality into their work as the readership for science fiction and fantasy began to age in the 1950s, however until the late 1960s few depicted alternative sexuality or revised gender roles, or openly investigated sexual questions. After the pushing back of boundaries in the 1960s and 70s, homosexuality gained much wider acceptance, and was often incorporated into otherwise conventional SF stories with little comment. By the 1980s, blatant homophobia was no longer considered acceptable to most readers. In Lois McMaster Bujold's Ethan of Athos (1986), the titular "unlikely hero" is gay obstetrician Dr. Ethan Urquhart, whose dangerous adventure alongside the first woman he has ever met presents both a future society where homosexuality is the norm and the lingering sexism and homophobia of our own world. Uranian Worlds, by Eric Garber and Lyn Paleo, was compiled in 1983 and is an authoritative guide to science fiction literature featuring gay, lesbian, transgender, and related themes. The book covers science fiction literature published before 1990 (2nd edition, 1990), providing a short review and commentary on each piece.
As speculative fiction gives authors and readers the freedom to imagine societies that are different from real-life cultures, this freedom makes speculative fiction a useful means of examining sexual bias by forcing the reader to reconsider his or her heteronormative cultural assumptions. It has also been claimed that LGBT readers identify strongly with the mutants, aliens and other outsider characters found in speculative fiction.
James Jenkins of Valancourt Books notes that the connection between gay fiction and horror goes back to the Gothic novels of the 1790s and early 1800s. Many Gothic authors, like Matthew Lewis, William Thomas Beckford and Francis Lathom, were homosexual, and according to Jenkins "the traditional explanation for the gay/horror connection is that it was impossible for them to write openly about gay themes back then (or even perhaps express them, since words like 'gay' and 'homosexual' didn't exist), so they sublimated them and expressed them in more acceptable forms, using the medium of a transgressive genre like horror fiction." Early works with clear gay subtext include Lewis's The Monk (1796) and both Charles Maturin's The Fatal Revenge (1807) and Melmoth the Wanderer (1820). Somewhat later came the first lesbian vampire novella Carmilla (1872) by Sheridan Le Fanu and The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890) by Oscar Wilde, which shocked readers with its sensuality and overtly homosexual characters. There is even gay subtext in Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) as the title character warns off the female vampires and claims Jonathan Harker, saying "This man belongs to me!" The erotic metaphor of vampirism, inspired by Carmilla, has resulted in numerous vampire films since the 1970s strongly implying or explicitly portraying lesbianism.
James R. Keller writes that in particular,"Gay and lesbian readers have been quick to identify with the representation of the vampire, suggesting its experiences parallel those of the sexual outsider." Richard Dyer discusses the recurring homoerotic motifs of vampire fiction in his article "Children of the Night", primarily "the necessity of secrecy, the persistence of a forbidden passion, and the fear of discovery." With the vampire having been a recurring metaphor for same-sex desire from before Stoker’s Dracula, Dyer observes that historically earlier representations of vampires tend to evoke horror and later ones turn that horror into celebration. The homoerotic overtones of Anne Rice's celebrated The Vampire Chronicles series (1976-2014) are well-documented, and its publication reinforced the "widely recognized parallel between the queer and the vampire."
LGBT themes in comics is a relatively new concept, as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) themes and characters were historically omitted intentionally from the content of comic books and their comic strip predecessors, due to either censorship or the perception that comics were for children. With any mention of homosexuality in mainstream United States comics forbidden by the Comics Code Authority (CCA) until 1989, earlier attempts at exploring these issues in the US took the form of subtle hints or subtext regarding a character's sexual orientation. LGBT themes were tackled earlier in underground comics from the early 1970s onward. Independently published one-off comic books and series, often produced by gay creators and featuring autobiographical storylines, tackled political issues of interest to LGBT readers.
Comic strips have also dealt in subtext and innuendo, their wide distribution in newspapers limiting their inclusion of controversial material. The first openly gay characters appeared in prominent strips in the late 1970s; representation of LGBT issues in these titles causes vociferous reaction, both praise and condemnation, to the present day. Comic strips aimed at LGBT audiences are also syndicated in gay- and lesbian-targeted magazines and comics have been created to educate people about LGBT-related issues and to influence real-world politics, with their format and distribution allowing them to transmit messages more subtle, complex, and positive than typical education material. Portrayal of LGBT themes in comics is recognized by several notable awards, including the Gaylactic Spectrum Award and GLAAD Media Awards for outstanding comic book and comic strip.
Since the 1990s LGBT themes have become more common in mainstream US comics, including in a number of titles in which a gay character is the star. European comics have been more inclusive from an earlier date. The lack of censorship, and greater acceptance of comics as a medium of adult entertainment led to less controversy about the representation of LGBT characters. The popular Japanese manga tradition has included genres of girls' comics that feature homosexual relationships since the 1970s, in the form of yaoi and yuri. These works are often extremely romantic and include archetypal characters that often are not identified as gay. Since the Japanese "gay boom" of the 1990s, a body of manga aimed at LGBT customers has been produced, which have more realistic and autobiographical themes. Pornographic manga also often includes sexualised depictions of lesbians and intersex people. Queer theorists[who?] have noted that LGBT characters in mainstream comic books are usually shown as assimilated into heterosexual society, whereas in alternative comics the diversity and uniqueness of LGBT culture is emphasized.
- Gay themes
Compared to gay and lesbian teen fiction, sales of gay-themed books for younger children and availability of these books in public and school libraries remain "very dicey and very different."
One of the earliest books to address homosexuality was Jenny lives with Eric and Martin. Originally published in 1981 in Danish as Mette bor hos Morten og Erik, it tells the story of Jenny, her father and his partner and their daily life. Controversy and politicization followed its publication.
Some of the best known children's books with gay themes include Heather Has Two Mommies (1989) and Daddy's Roommate (1991), published by LGBT publisher Alyson Books. Both books discussed same-sex parenting and attracted criticism and controversy. The American Library Association ranked Heather Has Two Mommies as the 11th most frequently challenged book in the United States in the 1990s.
Recent controversies include King & King, originally written in Dutch and published in English in 2002. The book is about a prince uninterested in princesses, who eventually falls in love with another prince. In 2006, parents sued a Massachusetts school district after a teacher read the book to their son's second grade class.
Australian titles include the books in the 'Learn to Include' series: The Rainbow Cubby House, My House, Going to Fair Day and Koalas on Parade. House of Hades (2013), Book 4 in the The Heroes of Olympus young adult series by Rick Riordan, features a gay supporting character, Nico di Angelo.
A more extensive list of gay children's literature includes:
- A Name on the Quilt: A Story of Remembrance by Jeannine Atkins
- Uncle Bobby's Wedding by Sarah S. Brannen
- A B C: A Family Alphabet Book by Bobby Combs
- 1 2 3: A Family Counting Book by Bobby Combs
- Oliver Button is a Sissy by Tomie dePaola
- Asha's Mums by Rosamund Elwin and Michele Paulse
- The Sissy Duckling by Harvey Fierstein
- Molly's Family by Nancy Garden
- Antonio's Card/La Targeta de Antonio by Rigoberto González
- Best Best Colors: Los Mejores Colo res by Eric Hoffman
- Mini Mia and Her Darling Uncle by Pija Linderbaum
- Everywhere Babies by Susan Meyers
- Felicia's Favorite Story by Leslea Newman
- Saturday is Pattyday by Leslea Newman
- Too Far Away to Touch by Leslea Newman
- The White Swan Express by Jean Davies Okimoto and Elaine M. Aoki
- It's Okay to Be Different by Todd Parr
- Tiger Flowers by Patricia Quinlan
- And Tango Makes Three by Justin Richardson
- Seeds by George Shannon
- My Two Uncles by Judith Vigna
- William's Doll by Charlotte Zolotow
In July 2014 Singapore's National Library Board (NLB) confirmed it would destroy three children's books with pro-LGBT families themes as they saw the titles as being "against its 'pro-family' stance following complaints by a parent and its own internal review." The three books; “And Tango Makes Three,” which covers the true story of a pair of male penguins that successfully raise a chick, “The White Swan Express”, which features children adopted by a variety of families including gay, mixed-race and single parents, and “Who’s In My Family”, discusses families, including references to gay couples came to the attention of religious conservatives two weeks after a gay rights rally. The rally "sparked a fierce debate" between the religious conservatives opposed to the event and Singapore’s growing gay-rights lobby." The NLB is a state funded network of 26 public libraries. The decision was widely criticized by LGBT supporters and the arts and literary community who see the actions as akin to book burnings and other forms of censorship.
- Transgender themes
Following her father's transition, an Australian author and her partner were not able to find books with transgender characters, so she decided to write a book to assist children in understanding gender fluidity. Her book is expected to be published globally in 2016.
- Gay pornography
- Lesbian fiction
- List of books portraying sexual relations between women
- List of poetry portraying sexual relations between women
- Singapore gay literature
- List of LGBT writers
- Marchesani, Joseph. "Science Fiction and Fantasy". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Gregory Woods. A History of Gay Literature: The Male Tradition.
- Byrne R. S. Fone. Anthology of gay literature.
This anthology offers a chronological survey of writing that represents, interprets, and constructs the experience of love, friendship, intimacy, and desire between men over time--that is, what most readers would call gay male literature.
- Meloy, Kilian (September 24, 2007). "Influential Gay Characters in Literature". AfterElton.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Pequigney, Joseph. "Classical Mythology". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Fox, Robin (2011). The Tribal Imagination: Civilization and the Savage Mind. Harvard University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780674060944.
- Martin, Thomas R. (2012). Alexander the Great: the story of an ancient life. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0521148448.
- Pequigney, Joseph (2002). "Classical Mythology: Achilles, Patroclus, and the Love of Heroes". glbtq.com. p. 5. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Aeschylus. The Myrmidons. Fr. 135. Radt, Stefan.
- Crompton, Louis. "Plato (427-327 B.C.E.): The Symposium". glbtq.com. p. 2. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Michelakis, Pantelis (2007). Achilles in Greek Tragedy. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-521-81843-5.
- Aeschines. "Against Timarchus". Perseus Project. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Crompton, Louis. "Plato (427-327 B.C.E.): The Phaedrus". glbtq.com. p. 3. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Virgil. "Eclogues II". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Gaius Valerius Catullus: Carmen 48 (English)". Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Gaius Valerius Catullus: Carmen 50 (English)". Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Gaius Valerius Catullus: Carmen 99 (English)". Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Gaius Valerius Catullus: Carmen 61 (English)". Lines 119–143. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Butrica, James L. (2006). "Some Myths and Anomalies in the Study of Roman Sexuality". Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity. pp. 218, 224.
- Richlin, Amy (1993). "Not before Homosexuality: The Materiality of the cinaedus and the Roman Law against Love between Men". Journal of the History of Sexuality. 3.4: 534.
- Ancona, Ronnie (2005). "(Un)Constrained Male Desire: An Intertextual Reading of Horace Odes 2.8 and Catullus Poem 61". Gendered Dynamics in Latin Love Poetry. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 47.
- Petrini, Mark (1997). The Child and the Hero: Coming of Age in Catullus and Vergil. University of Michigan Press. pp. 19–20.
- Mount, Harry (November 25, 2009). "Mark Lowe is right: The Romans said it better". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Frontain, Raymond-Jean. "Petronius (ca 27-66)". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Kennedy, Hubert. "Rocco, Antonio (1586-1653)". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Stanley, John D. "Europe: The Enlightenment". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- Healey, Trebor (May 28, 2014). "Early Gay Literature Rediscovered". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- Garber, Eric; Lyn Paleo (1983). "Carmilla". Uranian Worlds: A Guide to Alternative Sexuality in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror. G. K. Hall. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8161-1832-8.
- LeFanu, J[oseph] Sheridan (1872). "Carmilla". In a Glass Darkly. London: R. Bentley & Son.
- LeFanu, J[oseph] Sheridan (1993). "Carmilla". In Pam Keesey. Daughters of Darkness: Lesbian Vampire Stories. Pittsburgh, PA: Cleis Press.
- Haggerty, George; Zimmerman, Bonnie, eds. (2000). "German Literature". Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures. p. 612. ISBN 0-815-34055-9.
- Jones, James W. "German and Austrian Literature: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Whitcomb, Selden L.; Matthews, Brander (1893). Chronological Outlines of American Literature. Norwood Press. p. 186.
- Austen, Roger (1977). Playing the Game: The Homosexual Novel in America. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-672-52287-1.
- Martin, Robert K. "American Literature: Nineteenth Century". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Johnson, Terrence. "Cleland, John (1709-1789)". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Nelson, James (2000). Publisher to the Decadents: Leonard Smithers in the Careers of Beardsley, Wilde, Dowson. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press.
- Gray, Robert; Christopher Keep (2007). "An Uninterrupted Current: Homoeroticism and collaborative authorship in Teleny". In Marjorie Stone; Judith Thompson. Literary Couplings: Writing Couples, Collaborators, and the Construction of Authorship. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-299-21764-7.
- Roditi, Edouard (1986). Oscar Wilde. New Directions Publishing. p. 168. ISBN 0-8112-0995-4.
- Garber & Paleo (1983). "The Picture of Dorian Gray". Uranian Worlds. p. 148.
- Fish, Scott. "Gide, André (1869-1951) - Page 2". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Gifford, James J. "Stevenson, Edward Irenaeus Prime- (1868-1942)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Higdon, David Leon. "Modernism". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Cady, Joseph. "American Literature: Gay Male, 1900-1969". glbtq.com. p. 1. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Jones, James W. "Mann, Thomas (1875-1955): Death in Venice". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Gregory, Woods. "Proust, Marcel (1871-1922): À la recherche du temps perdu". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Fish, Scott. "Gide, André (1869-1951) - Page 3". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Forster, Edward Morgan (1971). Maurice. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31032-9.
- Stryker, Susan (2001). Queer Pulp: Perverted Passions from the Golden Age of the Paperback. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. p. 97.
- Stryker (2001). Queer Pulp. p. 100.
- Sarotte, Georges-Michel (1978). Like a Brother: Male Homosexuality in the American Novel and Theatre from Herman Melville to James Baldwin. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press. p. 18.
- Young, Ian (1975). The Male Homosexual in Literature: A Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press. pp. 153–154.
- Slide, Anthony (2003). Lost Gay Novels: A Reference Guide to Fifty Works from the First Half of the Twentieth Century. Routledge. pp. 1–2.
- Austen, Roger (1977). Playing the Game: The Homosexual Novel in America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. p. 119.
- Stryker (2001). Queer Pulp. pp. 17, 103.
- Bronski, Michael (2003). Pulp Friction: Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 343.
- Drewey Wayne Gunn, ed. (2003). The Golden Age of Gay Fiction. Albion, New York: MLR Press. p. 3 (Ian Young).
- Vidal (1995). The City and the Pillar and Seven Early Stories. p. xvi.
- Bronksi (2003). Pulp Friction. p. 5.
- Farmer, Amy. "Genet, Jean (1910-1986)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Nakao, Seigo. "Mishima, Yukio (1925-1970)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Nelson, Emmanuel S. "Baldwin, James Arthur (1924-1987)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Slide (2003). Lost Gay Novels. p. 152.
The Charioteer (1953), The Last of the Wine (1956), and particularly The Persian Boy (1972) quickly became best-sellers within the gay community...
- Cordova, Steven (June 26, 2014). "A Room in Chelsea Square by Michael Nelson". Lambda Literary. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Book Description: A Room in Chelsea Square (1958) by Michael Nelson". Valancourt Books. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Smith, Dinitia (September 3, 1998). "Allen Drury, 80, Novelist; Wrote Advise and Consent (Obituary)". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Ringle, Ken (September 4, 1998). "Allen Drury, Father Of the D.C. Drama". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Tarloff, Erik (February 21, 1999). "Before Monica: Allen Drury's last novel revisits some old political battlefields and ends a trilogy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Simon, Scott (September 2, 2009). "At 50, a D.C. Novel With Legs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Rich, Frank (May 15, 2005). "Just How Gay Is the Right?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- "Return to Thebes by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "Toward What Bright Glory? by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
North McAllister, the tormented homosexual trying to keep his secret, but recklessly in love.
- "Public Men by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
[Willie's] campaign is compromised by gay son Amos, who at last commits suicide with his lover, Joel.
- Bredbeck, Gregory W. "Rechy, John (b. 1934)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Summers, Claude J. (October 25, 2013). "John Rechy's City of Night at 50". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Summers, Claude J. "Isherwood, Christopher (1904-1986): Isherwood's Masterpiece, A Single Man". glbtq.com. p. 3. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Boucher, Anthony (June 5, 1966). "Criminals At Large". The New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Kiernan, Robert F. (1982). Gore Vidal. Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc. pp. 94–100.
- Kantrowitz, Arnie. "Humor: Use of a Surrogate and Connecting Openly Gay and Lesbian Characters to a Larger Society". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- Miller, Edmund. "Vidal, Gore (1925-2012)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- McDowell, Edwin (May 11, 1984). "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times. p. C26.
- "All-TIME 100 Novels". TIME. October 16, 2005. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Soto, Francisco. "Puig, Manuel (1932-1990)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Bredbeck, Gregory W. "Holleran, Andrew (b. 1943?)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Woodland, Randal. "White, Edmund (b. 1940)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Cordova, Steven. "Ellis, Bret Easton (b. 1964)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Dewey, Charlsie (May 28, 2013). "Lambda Literary Foundation marks 25 years of LGBT writers". Windy City Times. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Bronski, Michael, ed. Pulp Friction: Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2003, page 2.
- Clute, John; Peter Nicholls. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. London: Orbit Books. p. 1088. ISBN 1-85723-897-4.
- Joanna Russ. "Introduction". Uranian Worlds. p. xxii.
- Dynes, Wayne R.; Warren Johansson; William A. Percy; Stephen Donaldson (1990). "Science Fiction". Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Garland Publishing. p. 752. ISBN 978-0-8240-6544-7.
- "Reviews: Ethan of Athos". Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Walton, Jo (April 2, 2009). "Quest for Ovaries: Lois McMaster Bujold’s Ethan of Athos". Tor.com. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Gerlach, Nicki (2011). "The SF Site Featured Review: Ethan of Athos". SF Site. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Garber & Paleo (1983). Uranian Worlds.
- Pearson, Hollinger & Groden, p.7
- Hogan, David J. (1997). "Lugosi, Lee, and the Vampires". Dark Romance: Sexuality in the Horror Film. McFarland. pp. 146–163. ISBN 0-7864-0474-4.
- Keller, James R. (2000). Anne Rice and Sexual Politics: The Early Novels. McFarland. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-0786408467.
- Dyer, Richard (1988). "Children of the Night: Vampirism as Homosexuality, Homosexuality as Vampirism". In Susannah Radstone. Sweet Dreams: Sexuality, Gender, and Popular Fiction. London: Lawrence & Wishart Ltd. p. 64.
- "Submit to Anne". Salon.com. September 16, 1996. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- Maslin, Janet (November 11, 1994). "Film Review: Interview with the Vampire; Rapture and Terror, Bound by Blood". NYTimes.com. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- James, Caryn (November 13, 1994). "In Search of the Man Within the Monster". NYTimes.com. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- The Yellow Kid, first serialized in 1895, is considered the "first newspaper comic strip," though "the mechanics of comic strips were in use well before the Kid's debut in illustrated magazines." Wood, Mary (2004-02-02), Origins of the Kid, xroads.virginia.edu, retrieved 2009-03-18
- Nyberg, Amy Kiste (1998), Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, pp. 143, 175–176, ISBN 0-87805-975-X
- Applegate, David, Coming Out in the Comic Strips, MSNBC, retrieved 2009-03-29
- Getlin, Josh (January 5, 2004). "Gay references touchy in children's literature". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Spence, Alex (July 2000). "Controversial Books in the Public Library: A Comparative Survey of Holdings of Gay-Related Children’s Picture Books". The Library Quarterly. 70 (3): 335–379. doi:10.1086/603196.
- Meade, Michael J. (April 27, 2006). "Parents File Federal Suit Over Gay Book". 365Gay.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Williams, Margo (April 20, 2006). "New Dispute Over Gay Books Erupts At Mass. School". 365Gay.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Ann, Frances. "A Rainbow Celebration: Gays & Lesbians in Books for Children". San Francisco Public Library. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
- "Singapore national library to destroy LGBT-themed children’s books". TheJournal.ie. July 11, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- Akersten, Matt (16 October 2015). "Transgender Teddy will teach kids about gender fluidity". Samesame.com.au. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Bausells, Marta (12 August 2015). "The transgender teddy bear teaching children about friendship and identity". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- Pages Passed from Hand to Hand: The Hidden Tradition of Homosexual Literature in English from 1748 to 1914 edited and with an introduction by Mark Mitchell and David Leavitt, Chatto & Windus 1998
- Homosexuality in Literature, 1890–1930 by Jeffrey Mayers, Athlone, 1977
- A History of Gay Literature: The Male Tradition by Gregory Woods, Yale University Press, 1999
- Gaiety Transfigured: Gay Self-Representation in American Literature edited by David Bergman, University of Wisconsin Press, 1991
- Beyond Sex and Romance?: The Politics of Contemporary Lesbian Fiction edited by Elaine Hutton, Women's Press, 1998.
- Lesbian and Gay Writing: An Anthology of Critical Essays edited by Mark Lilly, Macmillan, 1990
- Love Between Men in English Literature by Paul Hammond, Macmillan, 1996
- The Homosexual as Hero in Contemporary Fiction by Stephen Adams, Vision, 1980
- The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse edited by Stephen Coote, Penguin, 1983
- Essays on Gay Literature edited by Stuart Kellogg, Harrington Park Press, 1983
-  Spence, Alex.“Controversial Books in the Public Library: A Comparative Survey of Holdings of Gay-Related Children’s Picture Books.” Library Quarterly 70(3) (July 2000): 335-379 (abstract)
- Lambda Literary Foundation – Publishes the Lambda Book Report and the Lambda Literary Awards
- Blithe House Quarterly – online journal
- Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Culture on Gay Literature
- NuWine Press - Gay Christian Book Publisher featuring fresh perspectives on the Christian faith
- Lodestar Quarterly — an Online Journal of the Finest Gay, Lesbian, and Queer Literature
- Lesbian Mysteries features Lesbian Mystery Novels
- Gay Authors Online LGBT Fiction Stories
- Gay's the Word UK LGBTQ Specialist Bookshop
-  Annotated Bibliography of Children's Books With Gay and Lesbian Characters
-  Lists, summarizes, and offers reader reviews of Teen, Middle Grade, and Picture Books with Gay (GLBTQ) characters and themes.]
-  LGBTQ Reserve Collection