January 1937

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1937
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The following events occurred in January 1937:

January 1, 1937 (Friday)

January 2, 1937 (Saturday)

  • Great Britain and Italy signed a "gentleman's agreement" pledging to mutually respect one another's rights and interests in the Mediterranean as well as Spain's independence and integrity.[5][6]
  • Died: Ross Alexander, 29, American actor (suicide)

January 3, 1937 (Sunday)

  • The Spanish Republican government called Germany's recent naval actions "acts of aggression and war." Germany sent a note offering to release the Aragon and cease attacks on Spanish shipping as soon as restitution was made for the cargo of the Palos not being fully returned. This proposal was rejected.[3]
  • During the Second Battle of the Corunna Road, the Nationalists captured Villafranca del Castillo west of Madrid.[6]
  • In China, 128 drug addicts were taken to a village near Tianjin and executed by firing squad.[7]

January 4, 1937 (Monday)

January 5, 1937 (Tuesday)

  • Nazi Germany recommended its artists depict at least four children in illustrations of German families.[8]

January 6, 1937 (Wednesday)

  • U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered the annual State of the Union address to Congress. "The statute of NRA has been outlawed", the president said. "The problems have not. They are still with us." Roosevelt said that means "must be found to adapt our legal forms and our judicial interpretation to the actual present national needs of the largest progressive democracy in the modern world."[9]
  • The U.S. Congress strictly forbade the export of arms to Spain.[6]
  • The Soviet Census of 1937 was held.
  • Born: Paolo Conte, singer and pianist, in Asti, Italy; Underwood Dudley, mathematician, in New York City
  • Died: André Bessette, 91, Canadian religious leader

January 7, 1937 (Thursday)

January 8, 1937 (Friday)

January 9, 1937 (Saturday)

January 10, 1937 (Sunday)

  • France massed troops in French Morocco and threatened to occupy the Spanish side if the Nationalists refused to quickly oust the Germans reported in the territory. France feared that Germany was building up troops there under the guise of "volunteers" in preparation for a surprise attack on French Morocco.[13]
  • The Spanish government ordered an evacuation of all citizens remaining in Madrid.[6]
  • Britain warned its citizens that anyone volunteering to fight for either side in the Spanish Civil War would be subject to prosecution under the Foreign Enlistment Act of 1870.[14]

January 11, 1937 (Monday)

  • Adolf Hitler assured France that Germany had no intention of seizing Morocco.[15]
  • The United States invalidated all passports to Spain.[6]
  • The first issue of Look magazine went on sale in the United States.

January 12, 1937 (Tuesday)

  • The Finnish cargo ship Johanna Thorden ran aground in the Pentland Firth in northern Scotland, broke in two and sank with the loss of about 30 lives.[16]
  • Died: Martin Johnson, 52, American adventurer and documentary filmmaker (plane crash)

January 13, 1937 (Wednesday)

January 14, 1937 (Thursday)

January 15, 1937 (Friday)

January 16, 1937 (Saturday)

January 17, 1937 (Sunday)

  • A prison riot broke out near Guelph, Canada. Inmates started fires and fought police for ten hours until order was restored. An estimated $250,000 in damage was done and it was feared that 200 of the prison's 700 inmates had escaped.[22]
  • The Soviet Union sent Britain a note on the Spanish Civil War explaining that the Soviet government, although it "presently does not practice the dispatchment of volunteer detachments, does not consider it expedient to adopt unilateral prohibitive measures."[23]
  • The melodrama film Black Legion starring Humphrey Bogart premiered in New York City.
  • Died: Richard Boleslawski, 47, Polish director and actor

January 18, 1937 (Monday)

January 19, 1937 (Tuesday)

  • Howard Hughes set a new transcontinental aviation record by flying from Los Angeles to New York in 7 hours, 28 minutes and 25 seconds.[26]
  • British Parliament convened for its first session of the New Year. Anthony Eden gave a speech on the foreign situation saying that the future of the continent lay with Germany, who "has it in her power to influence a choice which will decide not only her fate, but that of Europe. If she chooses co-operation with other nations, full and equal co-operation, there is nobody in this country who will not assist wholeheartedly to remove misunderstandings and to make the way smooth for peace and prosperity."[27]
  • Nap Lajoie, Tris Speaker and Cy Young were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.[28]
  • Born: Giovanna Marini, singer-songwriter, in Rome, Italy

January 20, 1937 (Wednesday)

January 21, 1937 (Thursday)

January 22, 1937 (Friday)

January 23, 1937 (Saturday)

  • The second Moscow Trial began. 17 lesser communist leaders known as the Anti-Soviet Trotskyist Center were charged with an anti-Stalin conspiracy.[31]
  • The entire Japanese cabinet resigned due to a split between military leaders and anti-military political parties in the National Diet who thought that the army had too much influence over the government.[32]

January 24, 1937 (Sunday)

January 25, 1937 (Monday)

January 26, 1937 (Tuesday)

  • The Ohio River reached a crest of 79.99 feet. Most of the region was without electricity.[24]
  • The Japanese military declined to accept General Kazushige Ugaki as Prime Minister by refusing to supply a war minister. Ugaki was therefore unable to form a cabinet.[33]

January 27, 1937 (Wednesday)

January 28, 1937 (Thursday)

January 29, 1937 (Friday)

January 30, 1937 (Saturday)

January 31, 1937 (Sunday)

References

  1. "Spanish Ship Seized by Germans". The Barrier Miner. Broken Hill, New South Wales. January 2, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "German Warships Off Spain". The Sydney Morning Herald. January 4, 1937. p. 9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Darrah, David (January 4, 1937). "Spain Charges Acts of War". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Mercer, Derrik, ed. (1989). Chronicle of the 20th Century. London: Chronicle Communications Ltd. p. 478. ISBN 9-780582-039193.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Chronology 1937". indiana.edu. 2002. Retrieved September 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Cortada, James W., ed. (1982). Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 505. ISBN 0-313-22054-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Powell, John (January 4, 1937). "China Starts Shooting Drug Addicts". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Schultz, Sigrid (January 6, 1937). "Nazis Order 4 Children in All Family Scenes". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Peters, Gerbhard; Woolley, John T. "Annual Message to Congress – January 6, 1937". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Juliana and Prince Are Wed in Splendor". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 7, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Neutrality Bill Signed". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 8, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Tierney, Dominic (2007). FDR and the Spanish Civil War: Neutrality and Commitment in the Struggle That Divided America. Duke University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9780822340768.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "France's Army Ready to Enter Spanish Africa". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 11, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Brewer, Sam (January 11, 1937). "Britain Forbids Her Citizens to Enlist in Spain". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Small, Alex (January 12, 1937). "Nazis Will Stay Out of Morocco, Hitler's Pledge". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "30 Lives Lost in Wreck off Scottish Coast". Singapore Free Press. January 26, 1937. p. 12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "50,000 Watch Shooting of 5 Drug Peddlers". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 14, 1937. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Pope Arises From Sickbed For First Time in a Month". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 13, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Speed Up War! Hitler and Duce Warn Franco". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 15, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "France Votes to Halt Spanish War Volunteers". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 16, 1937. p. 4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "French May Let Jews Settle on Island on Madagascar". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 17, 1937. p. 4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Prisoners Riot; Fire Buildings; Many Escape". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 18, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Russia Rejects Individual Curb on Help to Spain". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 18, 1937. p. 9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. 24.0 24.1 Schrage, Robert (2011). Carl Kiger: The Man Beyond The Murder. Covington. Kentucky: The Merlot Group, LLC. pp. 20–22. ISBN 9780981612348.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Schultz, Sigrid (January 19, 1937). "Hitler to Train Cream of Youth for Leadership". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "Hughes, Riding Gale, Sets Record Of 7 1/2 Hours in Flight From Coast". The New York Times. January 20, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Mr. Eden's Statement". Hansard. January 19, 1937. Retrieved September 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Fame Comes to Speaker, Lajoie and Cy Young". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 20, 1937. p. 23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Pederson, William D. (2006). Presidential Profiles: The FDR Years. New York: Facts on File. p. 358. ISBN 9780816074600.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Record Flood Surges Down Ohio Valley". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 23, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Vadim Z Rogovin, 1937: Stalin's Year of Terror (Mehring books 1998; ISBN 0-929087-77-1.) p. 113.
  32. "Japan Cabinet Resigns; Fight in Parliament". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 23, 1937. p. 13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Japanese Army Balks Effort to Pick Cabinet". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 27, 1937. p. 8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Film Stars Top Their Bosses in 1935 Salaries". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 28, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Brewer, Sam (January 28, 1937). "5,000 Women Riot as Duke Weds a Beauty". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Pelletier, Joe (November 17, 2009). "Howie Morenz's Death Bed". Greatest Hockey Legends. Retrieved September 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "1937". MusicAndHistory. Retrieved September 9, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "13 Must Die for Russian Pliot; Radek Spared". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 30, 1937. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Flood by States and Cities". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 30, 1937. p. 12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Schultz, Sigrid (January 31, 1937). "Hitler Retracts War Guilt". Chicago Daily Tribune. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>