Royal Netherlands Army

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Royal Dutch Army
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Koninklijke Landmacht
Active 9 January 1814–present
Country  Netherlands
Allegiance Government of the Netherlands
Type Army
Size 21,500 active full time and part time personnel
Part of Ministry of Defence (Netherlands)
HQ Kromhout kazerne (Utrecht)
Engagements Eighty Years' War
Dutch–Portuguese War
Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660)
Franco-Dutch War
Nine Years' War
War of the Spanish Succession
French Revolutionary Wars
Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland
Battle of Friedland
Peninsular War
French invasion of Russia
Hundred Days
Battle of Waterloo
Belgian Revolution
World War II
Korean War
Indonesian National Revolution
Cold War
Dutch New Guinea Dispute
Iraq War
War in Afghanistan
Commander Lieutenant General Mart de Kruif[1]
Deputy commander Major General Marc van Uhm

The Royal Netherlands Army (Dutch: Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.

The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814—however, its origins date back to 1572, when the so-called Staatse Leger was raised. Therefore, the Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in the world, dating back to the 16th century. It fought during the Napoleonic Wars, World War II, the Indonesian War of Independence, Korean War, and served with NATO on the Cold War frontiers in Germany from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Since 1990, the army has deployed to the Iraq War from 2003 and the War in Afghanistan (2001-present), as well as a number of United Nations peacekeeping deployments, notably with UNIFIL in Lebanon, and UNPROFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1992–1995.

Short history

Republic and French period, 1572 to 1814

Soldiers of the Royal Netherlands Army, 1937

The Royal Netherlands Army was raised on 9 January 1814, but its origins date back to 1572, when the so-called Staatse Leger was founded. Therefore, the Netherlands operates one of the world's oldest standing armies, dating back to the 16th century. This army of the Dutch Republic was one of the less organised, and not well trained armies of the 17th and early 18th century, and saw actions in the Eighty Years War, the Dano-Swedish War (1658–1660), the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years War, the War of Spanish Succession, the War of Austrian Succession, and the French Revolutionary Wars until the French conquered the Netherlands in early 1795.

The Staatse Leger was replaced by the army of the Batavian Republic in 1795, which in turn was replaced by the army of the Kingdom of Holland in 1806. It fought alongside the French in the Anglo-Russian Invasion of Holland in 1799 and several campaigns in Germany, Austria and Spain between 1800 and 1810. Most notable were the engagements of the Horse Artillery (Korps Rijdende Artillerie) at the Battle of Friedland in 1807, the capture of the city of Stralsund in 1807 and 1809 and the participation of the Dutch brigade in the Peninsular War between 1808 and 1810. The independent army was disbanded in 1810 when Napoleon decided to 'reunite' Holland into France ("La Hollande est reunie à l'Empire"). The army units became part of the Grande Armée. The present day French 126th Infantry Regiment has Dutch origins. Dutch army elements participated in the French invasion of Russia in 1812. Most notable were the actions of the Pontonniers company under Captain Benthien at the Berezina River (Battle of Berezina). New research points out that, contrary to what is currently believed, approximately half of the Dutch contingent of the Grande Armée survived the Russian Campaign.[2]

Kingdom of the Netherlands, 1814 to present

An independent Dutch army was resurrected by the new Kingdom of the United Netherlands in 1814, following the Orangist uprising against Napoleonic rule in 1813. This new force, the Netherlands Mobile Army, formed an integral part of the allied army during the Hundred Days Campaign that culminated in the Battle of Waterloo. Units such as Baron Chassé's were key in securing victory for the allied army. Since 1814, (elements of) the army have been involved in several military conflicts (Waterloo campaign 1815, several colonial wars 1825–1925, and the Belgian Revolution 1830–1832.

At the beginning of the Second World War, the I Corps was the force strategic reserve and was located in the Vesting Holland, around The Hague, Leiden, Haarlem and in the Westland. The Royal Netherlands Army was defeated in May 1940 and only began to rise again with the formation of the Princess Irene Brigade Group in exile. In the Far East, the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army was defeated by the Japanese in 1942; few elements managed to escape. Today's army grew out of the wartime force, starting with the liberation of parts of the Netherlands in 1944; the Dutch had plans to contribute a 200,000 strong army to the defeat of Germany and Japan.[3]

The army then fought in the Indonesian War of Independence 1945–1949, in Korea in 1950-53, and the war with Indonesia over New Guinea, 1960–1962. The Royal Netherlands Navy and an army battalion were sent to Korea between 1950 and 1954. In total, 3,972 Soldiers were sent to fight the war in Korea, 123 died in combat.

The I (Netherlands) Corps stood watch alongside its NATO allies in Germany during the Cold War. The corps consisted of three divisions during the 1980s, the 1st, 4th, and 5th (reserve) divisions.[4] It was part of the NATO Northern Army Group. The corps's war assignment, as formulated by Commander, Northern Army Group (COMNORTHAG), would be to:[5]

  • Assume responsibility for its corps sector and relieve 1st German Corps forces as soon as possible.
  • Fight the covering force battle in accordance with COMNORTHAG's concept of operations.
  • In the main defensive battle: (1) hold and destroy the forces of the enemy's leading armies conventionally as far east as possible, maintaining cohesion with 1 (GE) Corps; (2) in the event of a major penetration affecting 1 (NL) Corps sector, be prepared to hold the area between the roads A7 and B3 and to conduct a counterattack according to COMNORTHAG's concept of operations.
  • Maintain cohesion with LANDJUT and secure NORTHAG's left flank in the Forward Combat Zone.

During the early 1990s I (NL) Corps was reduced to the First Division 7 December, which became part of I. German/Dutch Corps, and then later the division headquarters itself was disbanded.

Since the end of the Cold War, the army concentrates on peace-keeping and peace-enforcing operations and has been involved in several operations (in Lebanon between 1979 and 1985, and the former Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Kosovo) 1991–present, but also in Cambodia 1992–1994, Haiti 1995–1996, Cyprus 1998–1999, Eritrea and Ethiopia 2001, and most recent in Iraq 2003–2005, Afghanistan 2002–2010 and Chad 2008–2009).

568 AIFV (YPR-765) infantry fighting vehicles were in service until June 2012, while of a total of 445 Leopard 2 MBTs originally purchased, 114 tanks and 1 turret were sold to Austria, 100 to Canada, 57 to Norway, 1 driver training tank and 10 turrets to Germany and 38 to Portugal (1 driver training tank). On April 8, 2011 the Dutch Ministry of Defense dissolved the last tank unit and sold the remaining Leopard tanks due to large budget cuts.[6] On May 18, 2011 the last Leopard 2 fired the final shot at the Bergen-Hohne Training Area.[7]


Dutch army troops have deployed to Lebanon as part of an international protection force since 1979 War in Lebanon, 1979–1985 UNIFIL. Of the 9,084 soldiers who served in Lebanon, 9 soldiers died. Among the units that contributed troops to Dutchbat South Lebanon was 44 Armoured Infantry Battalion (44 painfbat) from the Regiment Infanterie Johan Willem Friso. All 9,084 Soldiers received the medal for peace keeping under war circumstances.


Dutch army troops have deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of a United Nations protection force since 1992 and criticized by human rights organizations due to the role during Srebrenica massacre in which 8.000 Bosniaks were killed in Bosnia.[8]


Dutch army troops have deployed to Kosovo as part of the NATO Kosovo Force since 1999.


A contingent of 1,345 troops (comprising Landmacht and Dutch Marines, supported by Royal Netherlands Air Force helicopters) was deployed to Iraq in 2003, based at Camp Smitty near As Samawah (Southern Iraq) with responsibility for the Muthanna Province, as part of the Multinational force in Iraq. On June 1, 2004, the Dutch government renewed their stay through 2005. The Netherlands pulled its troops out of Iraq in March 2005, leaving half a dozen liaison officers until late 2005. The Dutch Government reportedly turned down an Iraqi Government request to extend the Dutch contingent for another year. The Netherlands lost 2 soldiers in separate attacks. On 18 April 2008 the son of the Army commander, lieutenant Dennis van Uhm, was one of the two killed by a road side explosion.


In mid 2006, Dutch Special Forces Korps Commandotroepen teams deployed successfully to Tarin Kowt in Afghanistan, to lay the ground for the increasing numbers of engineers who were building a vast base there. At the same time other special forces units from other nations deployed throughout the area, and worked closely together in this volatile area. By August 2006 the Netherlands deployed the majority of 1,400 troops to Uruzgan province at southern Afghanistan at Tarin Kowt (1,200), at Kamp Holland, and Deh Rahwod (200). [2] The soldiers of Task Force Uruzgan were mostly from the Regiment Van Heutsz, supplemented with soldiers from 44 Pantserinfanteriebataljon Regiment Johan Willem Friso and the 42 Tankbataljon Regiment Huzaren Prins van Oranje. PzH 2000 self-propelled artillery pieces were deployed and used in combat for the first time. Since 2006, Dutch forces were involved in some of the more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan, including Operation Medusa and the Battle of Chora. As of 10 August 2008, The Netherlands had a total of 1,770 troops in Afghanistan not including special forces troops.


The core fighting element of the army consists of three infantry brigades: one mechanized brigade, one motorized brigade and one airmobile brigade (43 Mechanized brigade, 13 Motorized brigade and 11 Airmobile brigade respectively. The number of full-time professional personnel is 21,500.[9] The Royal Netherlands Army is a volunteer force; compulsory military service has not been abolished but has been suspended. The other three services (Royal Netherlands Navy; Royal Netherlands Air Force and the Royal Marechaussee) are fully volunteer forces as well.

Royal Netherlands Army.png


Unlike many other military organizations, Dutch Army soldiers are represented by various unions. The four main unions are:

  • General Christian Union for Military personnel (ACOM);
  • General Federation for Military Personnel (AFMP)
  • Joint Officers Associations | Mid- & Highlevel Civilian Personnel (GOV|MHB);
  • Association for Civil and Military personnel (VBM).



Royal Netherlands Army - brigades in 2011

Prior to 2012, the army also included armoured regiments equipped with main battle tanks. One of these, the Regiment Huzaren Prins Alexander (former 3rd Hussar Regiment), was disbanded in November 2007 due to budget cuts. The other two, the Regiment Huzaren Van Sytzama (former 1st Hussar Regiment) and the Regiment Huzaren Prins van Oranje (former 2nd Hussar Regiment) were disbanded, along with the army's full armoured capability, in 2012 as a result of further cuts to the Dutch defence budget.[10]


Royal Netherlands Army's Mechanised Infantry unit who participated in the Allied Spirit I exercises.
11 Infanteriebataljon Garde and Royal Netherlands Air Force's AH-64.
Royal Military Band 'Johan Willem Friso'

Each infantry regiment of the Royal Netherlands Army consists of a single battalion. The current order of battle includes a total of seven infantry battalions - of these, two are classed as foot guards and the remainder as line infantry:

  • Reserve Infantry
    • Korps Nationale Reserve, formed after the Second World War out of the former 'Voluntary Landstorm' units (formed in 1948, origins date back to the citizen militias of the 13th century)

The Regiment Limburgse Jagers and Regiment Infanterie Oranje Gelderland guard the traditions of the former 6th and 8th Infantry Regiment respectively. In the near future, the traditions of the Regiment Infanterie Menno van Coehoorn (former 3rd Infantry regiment, disbanded 1995) will be guarded by the Regiment Infantry Johan Willem Friso. The 4th Infantry Regiment (disbanded 1950) and the Regiment Infanterie Chassé (former 7th Infantry Regiment, disbanded 1995) remain disbanded.

The staff support companies of 11th Air Mobile Brigade, 13th Motorised Brigade and 43rd Mechanized Brigade are part of the Garderegiment Grenadiers en Jagers, the Garderegiment Fusiliers Prinses Irene and Regiment Infanterie Johan Willem Friso respectively.

Mechanised Infantry

  • 44 Pantserinfanteriebataljon Regiment Infanterie Johan Willem Friso
  • 45 Pantserinfanteriebataljon Regiment Infanterie Oranje Gelderland

Motorised Infantry

  • 17 Infanteriebataljon Garde Fuseliers Prinses Irene
  • 42 Infanteriebataljon Regiment Limburgse Jagers

Air Assault Infantry

  • 11 Infanteriebataljon Garde Grenadiers en Jagers
  • 12 Infanteriebataljon Regiment Van Heutsz
  • 13 Infanteriebataljon Regiment Stoottroepen Prins Bernhard

National Reserve (light Infantry)

  • 10 Natresbataljon
  • 20 Natresbataljon
  • 30 Natresbataljon

Special forces

Support arms

Air Defence

Located at Lieutenant General Best Barracks, formerly known as De Peel Air Base.


Military academy

The military academy of the Royal Netherlands Army is the Koninklijke Militaire Academie in Breda.

Army reserve

Korps Nationale Reserve - three mixed regional oriented battalions (mainly infantry with a light role), similar to UK Territorial Army now called the Army Reserve. The battalions are placed under the command of three Regional Support Commands, which will be integrated with the 11th Air Mobile Brigade, 13th Mechanized Brigade and 43rd Mechanized Brigade by 2011.

Bi-national army corps

The Netherlands and Germany work together in a Bi-national Army Corps structure, the I. German/Dutch Corps. This is a rapid deployable Army Corps headquarters that can be deployed in the frame of the NATO Response Force. The permanent elements of this corps are a bi-national Staff Support Battalion and a bi-national Communications and Informations Battalion. The Staff Support Battalion consists of a bi-national staff support company and a logistics company. The battalion is based at Münster (Germany) and Eibergen (Netherlands). The 101 Communications and Informations Battalion is based in Eibergen and Garderen.


Armoured combat vehicles

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Armoured combat vehicles
Leopard 2  Germany Main battle tank 18 (44) Leopard 2 tank in Dutch service.jpg The Dutch army supplies 16 tanks and 100 personnel for the German 414 tank battalion(44 tanks), consisting out of one Dutch tank squadron (18 tanks).
CV9035NL  Sweden Infantry fighting vehicle 149 CV90 photo-003.JPG 44 sold to Estonia in 2014 and 44 in storage as reserve. 88 In active service 17 for training
PzH 2000  Germany Self-propelled howitzer 57 Pantserhouwitser 2000.jpg 18 are in active service, 6 for training, 33 are combat ready in storage
Fennek  Netherlands/ Germany Armoured car 365 Fennek-highres.jpg 365 in active service 40 for spare parts and 5 in museums. Several versions: Reconnaissance(144), General Purpose/Cargo(63) Medium Range Anti-Tank(48), Air Defence Vehicle (Stinger Weapons Platform)(18), Forward Observer(45), mortar(39), and Tactical Air Control (Target Designation) party(8).
Boxer  Netherlands/ Germany armoured fighting vehicle 200 GTK Boxer side.jpg Currently being delivered in 6 versions: 36 Command, 52 Ambulance, 80 Engineering, 12 Battle damage repair, 12 cargo and 8 Driver training vehicles. The Boxer and Bushmaster switched from task,the Boxer is now for troop transport and the Bushmaster for supporting tasks
Bushmaster  Australia Mine-resistant ambush protected 96 Royal Netherlands Army Bushmaster APV, VAU 12kN 4X4 ADI-THALES Bushmaster NLD at Amersfoort, The Netherlands. pic2.JPG 10 have been lost in Uruzgan and Kunduz provinces during the Afghanistan deployment. 20 more were ordered and added to the fleet in 2015. The boxer and bushmaster switched from tasks so 48 Bushmasters will be conferted to 12 command vehicles, 12 ODE, 12 cargo, 12 EW(to replace te Fuchs EW).
Luchtmobiel Speciaal Voertuig[11]  Netherlands Multipurpose wheeled vehicle 160 Luchtmobiel Speciaal Voertuig.jpg Used by Air Mobile brigade, needs replacement.
Fuchs 1  Germany Armoured personnel carrier 24 120px 18 Electronic warfare, 6 NBC Reconnaissance. will be replaced by the Bushmaster.
Büffel  Germany Armoured recovery vehicle 25 Allied Spirit I, Day Seven, Jan. 19, 2015 150119-A-WS244-291.jpg
Bergepanzer 2  Germany Armoured recovery vehicle 20 Leopard 1 ARV photo-010.JPG Of the original 22, 2 were sold to Estonia in 2014
PSB 2  Germany Armoured vehicle-launched bridge 10 PSB 2 with bridge.jpg replaced together with 4 Norwegian Leguan Bridgelayers 14 Biber Armoured vehicle-launched bridge layers.
Leguan bridge layer  Germany Armoured vehicle-launched bridge 4 Leguan bridge layer.jpg replaced together with 10 PSB2 14 Biber Armoured vehicle-launched bridge layers. The Leguan is a temporary replacement.
Pionierpanzer 3  Germany Armoured engineering vehicle 10 Kodiak breaktrough tank.jpg replaced 14 Pionierpanzer 2 tanks

Other vehicles

There are thousands of vehicles in several versions:

Unmanned aerial vehicles

Air-defence system

13th Air Defence Battery & 802 Squadron

Name Origin Type Number Photo Notes
Anti Air Units
FIM-92 Stinger  United States Man-portable surface-to-air missile 500 FIM-92 Stinger USMC.JPG portable SAM
fennek  Germany/ Netherlands FIM-92 Stinger weapon platform 18 Fennek.jpg 18 are combat ready. part of 13th Air Defence Battery
Mercedes-Benz 290GD  Germany FIM-92 Stinger weapon platform 18 120px 18 are combat ready. part of 13th Air Defence Battery
NASAMS II  Norway Surface-to-air missilesystem 3 120px 3 firing units with In total 9 launchers with each 6 AIM-120B Advanced Medium Range Air to Air Missiles. part of 13th Air Defence Battery
MIM-104 Patriot  United States Mobile long range surface-to-air missile 3 120px 3 firing units with in total 20 launchers with each 4 Patriot PAC-2 missiles or 16 PAC-3 missiles. part of 802 Squadron

Infantry weapons

Model Image Origin Type Caliber Details
Glock 17 and Glock 18 Glock 17 MOD 45154998.jpg  Austria Handgun 9×19mm Parabellum Glock 17 is the standard service pistol. Glock 18 is a selective fire version with a detachable stock for special operations.
SIG Sauer P226 SIGSauerP226.JPG  Germany/  Switzerland Handgun 9×19mm Parabellum
Personal Defense Weapons
FN P90 FN-P90 2.jpg  Belgium Personal Defense Weapon 5.7×28mm Used by Special Forces.
Submachine guns
Heckler & Koch MP5 Heckler Koch MP5.jpg  West Germany Submachine Gun 9×19mm Parabellum In use with the Special Forces.
Colt Canada C8NLD 150px  Canada Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Service carbine. Modernized version of all C8 variants.
Heckler & Koch HK416 HK416.jpg  Germany Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Special Forces use only.
Colt Canada C7NLD Allied Spirit I 150118-A-WG858-010.jpg  Canada Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO Service rifle. Modernized version of all C7 variants.
Heckler & Koch HK417 Heckler&Koch HK MR308 linke Seite.jpg  Germany Battle rifle/ Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm NATO Scaled up version of the HK416 carbine firing a more powerful cartridge. Usually with scope.
FN FAL FN-FAL belgian.jpeg  Belgium Battle Rifle 7.62×51mm NATO Former Service Rifle.
Machine guns
FN Minimi M249 FN MINIMI DA-SC-85-11586 c1.jpg  Belgium Light machine gun 5.56×45mm NATO
FN MAG FN MAG.jpg  Belgium General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO Standard general-purpose machine gun.
M2HB-QCB Machine gun M2 1.jpg  United States Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm NATO Standard heavy machine gun.
Sniper rifles
Steyr SSG 69 150px  Austria Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Accuracy International Arctic Warfare - Psg 90.jpg  United Kingdom Sniper Rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
Accuracy International AWM Bundeswehr-Technik 01 (RaBoe).jpg  United Kingdom Sniper Rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
SAKO TRG-41 Sako TRG-42.jpg  Finland Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
Mauser SR93  Germany Sniper rifle .300 Winchester Magnum / .338 Lapua Magnum
Barrett M82A1 Barret M82 DA-ST-92-07336.jpg  United States Anti-material rifle 12.7×99mm NATO
Mossberg M590A1 150px  United States Shotgun 12 gauge
Grenades & Grenade launchers
NR 20 C-1  Netherlands Hand grenade Developed by Eurometaal specifically for the Dutch Army in the 1990s.
Heckler & Koch UGL Allied Spirit I 150120-A-WG858-017.jpg  Germany Grenade launcher 40×46mm Mounted under C7 rifles and C8 carbines.
Heckler & Koch AGW HK GMW.jpg  Germany Automatic grenade launcher 40×53mm
Anti-tank weapons
M72A2 LAW 66 kertasinko 75.JPG  United States Anti-tank rocket launcher 66mm
Panzerfaust 3 150px  Germany Rocket Propelled Grenade 60mm
EUROSPIKE SPIKE ATGM.jpg  Israel/ Germany Anti-tank Missile 152mm
L16A2 81mmMORT L16.png  United Kingdom/ Canada Mortar 81mm
MO-120-RT 150px  France Mortar 120mm
Man-portable air-defense systems
FIM-92 Stinger 150px  United States MANPADS 70mm

Small arms

Name Type Caliber Notes
Colt Canada C7NLD Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO Service rifle. Modernized version of all C7 variants
Colt Canada C8NLD Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Service carbine. Modernized version of all C8 variants
Heckler & Koch HK416 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Used by Special Forces
Heckler & Koch HK417 Battle rifle/ Designated marksman rifle 7.62×51mm NATO Used by Special Forces
FN FAL Battle rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
FN Minimi Light machine gun 5.56×45mm NATO
FN MAG General-purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO
M2HB-QCB Heavy machine gun 12.7×99mm NATO .50 BMG
FN P90 Personal defence weapon 5.7×28mm Used by Special Forces
Heckler & Koch MP5 Submachine gun 9×19mm Parabellum Used by Special Forces
Glock 17 Pistol 9×19mm Parabellum Service pistol
Glock 18 Pistol 9×19mm Parabellum
SIG Sauer P226 Pistol 9×19mm Parabellum
Steyr SSG 69 Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
SAKO TRG-41 Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
Mauser SR93 Sniper rifle .300 Winchester Magnum, .338 Lapua Magnum
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Sniper rifle 7.62×51mm NATO
Accuracy International AWM Sniper rifle .338 Lapua Magnum
Barrett M82A1 Anti-material rifle 12.7×99mm NATO .50 BMG
Mossberg M590A1 Shotgun 12 gauge
Heckler & Koch UGL Grenade launcher 40×46mm Mounted under C7 rifles and C8 carbines
Heckler & Koch AGW Automatic grenade launcher 40×53mm
M72A2 LAW Anti-tank rocket launcher 66mm
Panzerfaust 3 Anti-tank rocket launcher
GILL Anti-tank missile
FIM-92 Stinger MANPADS
L16A2 Mortar 81mm
MO-120-RT Mortar 120mm

See also


  3. Isby and Kamps, 1985, 317
  4. Structural details in 1985 can be seen at, accessed April 2012.
  5. a-d quoted from Felius, Einde oefening. Infanterist tijdens de Koude Oorlog (Arnhem: Uitgeverij Quintijn, 2002), 305, via Hans Boersma, I (NL) Corps, accessed 4 April 2012
  7. (Dutch)
  8. "Court Says the Dutch Are to Blame for Srebrenica Deaths".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "'Nederland krijgt leger zonder tanks". 17 March 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. [1] Luchtmobiel Speciaal Voertuig Retrieved 2013-08-08

External links