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Hubei Province
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 湖北省 (Húběi Shěng)
 • Abbreviation HB / (pinyin: È)
134px 134px
134px 134px
Map showing the location of Hubei Province
Map showing the location of Hubei Province
Country China
Named for —"lake"
"north of the (Dongting) Lake"
(and largest city)
Divisions 13 prefectures, 102 counties, 1235 townships
 • Type Province
 • Body Hubei Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP Secretary Ying Yong
 • Congress director Ying Yong
 • Governor Wang Zhonglin (acting)
 • CPPCC chairman Huang Chuping
 • Total 185,900 km2 (71,800 sq mi)
Area rank 13th
Highest elevation (Shennong Peak) 3,105 m (10,187 ft)
Population (2020)[3]
 • Total 57,752,557
 • Rank 10th
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)
 • Density rank 12th
 • Ethnic composition Han: 95.6%
Tujia: 3.7%
Miao: 0.4%
 • Languages and dialects Southwestern Mandarin, Jianghuai Mandarin, Gan, Xiang
ISO 3166 code CN-HB
GDP (2017) CNY 3.65 trillion
USD 540.94 billion [4] (7th)
 • per capita CNY 61,971
USD 9,179 (11th)
HDI (2018) 0.762[5] (high) (12th)
(Simplified Chinese)
File:Hubei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hubei" in Chinese characters
Chinese 湖北
Postal Hupeh
Literal meaning "North of the (Dongting) Lake"

Hubei (/hˈb/;[6] Chinese: 湖北; alternately Hupeh) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake.[7] The provincial capital, Wuhan, serves as a major transportation hub and the political, cultural, and economic hub of central China.

Hubei's name is officially abbreviated to "" (È), an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty of c. 1045–771 BCE; a popular name for Hubei is "" (Chǔ) (suggested by that of the powerful State of Chu, which existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty of 770 – 256 BCE). Hubei borders the provinces of Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, and Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province.


Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. The Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures.[8][9] By the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC), the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, and it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north; but it was also a culturally unique blend of northern and southern culture, and was a powerful state that held onto much of the middle and lower Yangtze River, with power extending northwards into the North China Plain.[10]

Detail of an embroidered silk gauze ritual garment from a 4th-century BC, Zhou era tomb at Mashan, Jiangling County, Hubei

During the Warring States period (475–221 BC) Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest (in what is now Guanzhong, Shaanxi province), which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin, then (in 278 BC) its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei.[11][12] In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as a part of Qin's wars of uniting China.[13]

Qin founded the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the first unified dynasties in China. Then Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province (zhou) of Jingzhou in today Hubei and Hunan. The Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods.[14] Towards the end of the East Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China; but in the Battle of Red Cliffs, warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan drove Cao Cao out of Jingzhou. Liu Bei then took control of Jingzhou and appointed Guan Yu as administrator of Xiangyang (in modern Xiangyang, Hubei) to guard Jing province; he went on to conquer Yizhou (the Sichuan Basin), but lost Jingzhou to Sun Quan; for the next few decades Jingzhou was controlled by the Wu Kingdom, ruled by Sun Quan and his successors.[15]

The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century (Five Barbarians' uprise and Disaster of Yongjia (永嘉之乱)) began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled (but increasingly Sinicized) north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, and later on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits' jurisdiction: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south; Shannandong Circuit (山南东道) in the west, and Huainan Circuit in the east. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the early 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Yang Wu and its successor Southern Tang to the east, the Five Dynasties to the north and Shu to Shizhou (施州, in modern Enshi, Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture) .[16][citation needed]

The Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei, Hunan, and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1331, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, striking England, Belgium, and Italy by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.[17]

The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng. The Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, however, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei (especially Wuhan) into a prosperous center of commerce and industry. The Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining and metallurgy.[citation needed]

In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei; this government was later merged into Chiang Kai-shek's government in Nanjing. During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control.[citation needed]

During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident ("July 20th Incident"), an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution.[18]

As the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, the Xianning prefecture of Hubei was chosen as the site of Project 131, an underground military command headquarters.[19]

The province—and Wuhan in particular—suffered severely from the 1954 Yangtze River Floods. Large-scale dam construction followed, with the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River near Yichang started in 1970 and completed in 1988; the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, further upstream, began in 1993. In the following years, authorities resettled millions of people from western Hubei to make way for the construction of the dam. A number of smaller dams have been constructed on the Yangtze's tributaries as well.[citation needed]

The Xianning Nuclear Power Plant is planned in Dafanzhen, Tongshan County, Xianning to host at least four 1,250-megawatt (MW) AP1000 pressurized water reactors. Work on the site began in 2010; the first reactor was planned to start construction in 2011 and go online in 2015.[1] However, construction of the first phase has yet to start as of 2018.

Yellow Crane Tower

On 1 December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 in the COVID-19 pandemic was identified in the city of Wuhan. In January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was officially identified, forcing local and federal governments to implement massive quarantine zones across Hubei province, especially the capital Wuhan as the epicenter of outbreak. 15 cities were partially or fully locked down, affecting 57 million people directly. Following severe outbreaks in numerous other countries, including in different areas of the world, the outbreak was subsequently declared to be a pandemic in March 2020. However, after more than eight weeks, the lockdown on most cities in the province was lifted.


Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found. The Jianghan Plain takes up most of central and southern Hubei, while the west and the peripheries are more mountainous, with ranges such as the Wudang Mountains, the Jing Mountains, the Daba Mountains, and the Wu Mountains (in rough north-to-south order). The Dabie Mountains lie to the northeast of the Janghan Plain, on the border with Henan and Anhui; the Tongbai Mountains lie to the north on the border with Henan; to the southeast, the Mufu Mountains form the border with Jiangxi. The highest peak in Hubei is Shennong Peak, found in the Daba Mountains of the forestry area of Shennongjia; it has an altitude of 3105 m.[citation needed]

File:VM 5112 Gaoqiao Township, Liangtai River Valley.jpg
Liangtai River valley in Xingshan County. This is an important agricultural area since planting rice and other crops is more feasible here than on the surrounding mountain slopes

The two major rivers of Hubei are the Yangtze River and its left tributary, the Han River; they lend their names to the Jianghan Plain – Jiang representing the Yangtze and han representing the Han River. The Yangtze River enters Hubei from the west via the Three Gorges; the eastern half of the Three Gorges (Xiling Gorge and part of Wu Gorge) lie in western Hubei, while the western half is in neighbouring Chongqing. The Han River enters the province from the northwest. After crossing most of the province, the two great rivers meet at the center of Wuhan, the provincial capital.

Among the notable tributaries of the Yangtze within the province are the Shen Nong Stream (a small northern tributary, severely affected by the Three Gorges Dam project); the Qing, a major waterway of southwestern Hubei; the Huangbo near Yichang; and the Fushui River in the southeast.[citation needed]

Thousands of lakes dot the landscape of Hubei's Jianghan Plain, giving Hubei the name of "Province of Lakes"; the largest of these lakes are Liangzi Lake and Hong Lake. The numerous hydrodams have created a number of large reservoirs, the largest of which is the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han River, on the border between Hubei and Henan.[citation needed]

Hubei has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa or Cwa under the Köppen climate classification), with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool to cold, with average temperatures of 1 to 6 °C (34 to 43 °F) in January, while summers are hot and humid, with average temperatures of 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 °F) in July; punishing temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) or above are widely associated with Wuhan, the provincial capital. The mountainous districts of western Hubei, in particular Shennongjia, with their cooler summers, attract numerous visitors from Wuhan and other lowland cities.[citation needed]

Besides the capital Wuhan, other important cities are Jingmen; Shiyan, a center of automotive industry and the gateway to the Wudang Mountains; Yichang, the main base for the gigantic hydroelectric projects of southwestern Hubei; and Shashi.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions

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Hubei is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions (of which there are twelve prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture), as well as three directly administered county-level cities (all sub-prefecture-level cities) and one directly administered county-level forestry area. At the end of 2017, the total population is 59.02 million.[20]

Administrative divisions of Hubei
Division code[21] Division Area in km2[22] Population 2010[23] Seat Divisions[24]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities*
420000 Hubei Province 185900.00 57,237,740 Wuhan city 39 35 2 27
420100 Wuhan city 8549.09 9,785,392 Jiang'an District 13
420200 Huangshi city 4582.85 2,429,318 Xialu District 4 1 1
420300 Shiyan city 23674.41 3,340,843 Maojian District 3 4 1
420500 Yichang city 21227.00 4,059,686 Xiling District 5 3 2 3
420600 Xiangyang city 19724.41 5,500,307 Xiangcheng District 3 3 3
420700 Ezhou city 1593.54 1,048,672 Echeng District 3
420800 Jingmen city 12192.57 2,873,687 Dongbao District 2 1 2
420900 Xiaogan city 8922.72 4,814,542 Xiaonan District 1 3 3
421000 Jingzhou city 14068.68 5,691,707 Shashi District 2 2 4
421100 Huanggang city 17446.63 6,162,072 Huangzhou District 1 7 2
421200 Xianning city 9749.84 2,462,583 Xian'an District 1 4 1
421300 Suizhou city 9614.94 2,162,222 Zengdu District 1 1 1
422800 Enshi Autonomous Prefecture 24061.25 3,290,294 Enshi city 6 2
429004 Xiantao city** 2538.00 1,175,085 Jingling Subdistrict 1
429005 Qianjiang city** 2004.00 946,277 Yuanlin Subdistrict 1
429006 Tianmen city** 2,622.00 1,418,913 Shazui Subdistrict 1
429021 Shennongjia Forestry District ** 3253.00 76,140 Songbai town 1

* - including Forestry district
** - Directly administered county-level divisions

The thirteen Prefecture and four directly administered county-level divisions of Hubei are subdivided into 103 county-level divisions (39 districts, 24 county-level cities, 37 counties, 2 autonomous counties, 1 forestry district; the directly administered county-level divisions are included here). Those are in turn divided into 1234 township-level divisions (737 towns, 215 townships, nine ethnic townships, and 273 subdistricts).[citation needed]

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area[25] District area[25] City proper[25] Census date
1 Wuhan 7,541,527 9,785,388 9,785,388 2010-11-01
2 Xiangyang[lower-alpha 1] 1,433,057 2,199,690 5,500,307 2010-11-01
3 Yichang 1,049,363 1,411,380 4,059,686 2010-11-01
4 Jingzhou 904,157 1,154,086 5,691,707 2010-11-01
5 Shiyan[lower-alpha 2] 724,016 767,920 3,340,841 2010-11-01
(5) Shiyan (new district)[lower-alpha 2] 173,085 558,355 see Shiyan 2010-11-01
6 Huangshi 691,963 691,963 2,429,318 2010-11-01
7 Tianmen 612,515 1,418,913 1,418,913 2010-11-01
8 Ezhou 607,739 1,048,668 1,048,668 2010-11-01
9 Xiaogan 582,403 908,266 4,814,542 2010-11-01
10 Xiantao 553,029 1,175,085 1,175,085 2010-11-01
11 Hanchuan 468,868 1,015,507 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
12 Daye 449,998 909,724 see Huangshi 2010-11-01
13 Zaoyang 442,367 1,004,741 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
14 Zhongxiang 439,019 1,022,514 see Jingmen 2010-11-01
15 Qianjiang 437,757 946,277 946,277 2010-11-01
16 Jingmen 426,119 632,954 2,873,687 2010-11-01
17 Suizhou 393,173 618,582 2,162,222 2010-11-01
18 Xianning 340,723 512,517 2,462,583 2010-11-01
19 Enshi 320,107 749,574 part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
20 Macheng 302,671 849,090 see Huanggang 2010-11-01
21 Yingcheng 302,026 593,812 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
22 Honghu 278,685 819,446 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
23 Guangshui 272,402 755,910 see Suizhou 2010-11-01
24 Songzi 271,514 765,911 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
25 Wuxue 270,882 644,247 see Huanggang 2010-11-01
26 Huanggang 267,860 366,769 6,162,069 2010-11-01
(27) Jingshan[lower-alpha 3] 266,341 636,776 see Jingmen 2010-11-01
28 Anlu 237,409 568,590 see Xiaogan 2010-11-01
29 Zhijiang 218,396 495,995 see Yichang 2010-11-01
30 Shishou 213,851 577,022 see Jingzhou 2010-11-01
31 Laohekou 212,645 471,482 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
32 Chibi 202,542 478,410 see Xianning 2010-11-01
33 Yicheng 201,945 512,530 see Xiangyang 2010-11-01
34 Lichuan 195,749 654,094 part of Enshi Prefecture 2010-11-01
35 Danjiangkou 190,021 443,755 see Shiyan 2010-11-01
36 Dangyang 183,823 468,293 see Yichang 2010-11-01
37 Yidu 176,233 384,598 see Yichang 2010-11-01
  1. Formerly known as Xiangfan PLC until 2 December 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 New district established after census: Yunyang (Yunxian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. Jingshan County is currently known as Jingshan CLC after census.

Government and politics

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File:DEVELOPMENTS IN HUPEH PROVINCE JULY 1973 CIA-RDP78T05162A000300010033-2.pdf
US government report on major developments in missile, air, naval, electronics, ground forces, industrial, communication facilities and rail construction in the province (1973)

Secretaries of the CPC Hubei Committee:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949−1954
  2. Wang Renzhong (王任重): 1954−1966
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1966−1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1970−1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978−1982
  7. Guan Guangfu (关广富): 1983−1994
  8. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1994−2001
  9. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 2001
  10. Yu Zhengsheng (俞正声): 2001−2007
  11. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2007−2011
  12. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2011−2016
  13. Jiang Chaoliang (蒋超良): 2016−2020
  14. Ying Yong (应勇): 2020−present[26]

Governors of Hubei:

  1. Li Xiannian (李先念): 1949−1954
  2. Liu Zihou (刘子厚): 1954−1956
  3. Zhang Tixue (张体学): 1956−1967
  4. Zeng Siyu (曾思玉): 1968−1973
  5. Zhao Xinchu (赵辛初): 1973−1978
  6. Chen Pixian (陈丕显): 1978−1980
  7. Han Ningfu (韩宁夫): 1980−1982
  8. Huang Zhizhen (黄知真): 1982−1986
  9. Guo Zhenqian (郭振乾): 1986−1990
  10. Guo Shuyan (郭树言): 1990−1993
  11. Jia Zhijie (贾志杰): 1993−1995
  12. Jiang Zhuping (蒋祝平): 1995−2001
  13. Zhang Guoguang (张国光): 2001−2002
  14. Luo Qingquan (罗清泉): 2002−2007
  15. Li Hongzhong (李鸿忠): 2007−2010
  16. Wang Guosheng (王国生): 2010−2016
  17. Wang Xiaodong (王晓东): 2016−2021
  18. Wang Zhonglin (王忠林): 2021−present


The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River

Hubei is often called the "Land of Fish and Rice" (鱼米之乡). Important agricultural products in Hubei include cotton, rice, wheat, and tea, while industries include automobiles, metallurgy, machinery, power generation, textiles, foodstuffs and high-tech commodities.[27]

Mineral resources that can be found in Hubei in significant quantities include borax, hongshiite, wollastonite, garnet, marlstone, iron, phosphorus, copper, gypsum, rutile, rock salt, gold amalgam, manganese and vanadium. The province's recoverable reserves of coal stand at 548 million tons, which is modest compared to other Chinese provinces. Hubei is well known for its mines of fine turquoise and green faustite.[citation needed]

File:VM 5278 Muyu hills tea fields.jpg
Tea plantations on the western slopes of the Muyu Valley

Once completed, the Three Gorges Dam in western Hubei will provide plentiful hydroelectricity, with an estimated annual power production of 84,700 Gwh. Existing hydroelectric stations include Gezhouba, Danjiangkou, Geheyan, Hanjiang, Duhe, Huanglongtan, Bailianhe, Lushui and Fushui.

Hubei's economy ranks 7th in the country and its nominal GDP for 2018 was 3.9 trillion yuan (US$595 billion) and a per capita of 66,799 RMB (US$10,099) in 2018, tripled since 2010.

Economic and Technological Development Zones

  • Hubei Jingzhou Chengnan Economic Development Zone was established in 1992 under the approval of Hubei Government. Three major industries include textile, petroleum and chemical processing, with a combined output accounts for 90% of its total output. The zone also enjoys a well-developed transportation network—only 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the airport and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the railway station.[28]
  • Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.[29]
  • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993.[30] Its size is about 10-25 square km and it plans to expand to 25-50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include automobile production/assembly, biotechnology/pharmaceuticals, chemicals production and processing, food/beverage processing, heavy industry, and telecommunications equipment.
  • Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7 km2 (1.0 sq mi). The first 0.7 km2 (0.27 sq mi) area has been launched.[31]
  • Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd.[32] The planned area is 0.67 km2 (0.26 sq mi) with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.
  • Xiangyang New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1912[33] 29,590,000 —    
1928[34] 26,699,000 −9.8%
1936-37[35] 25,516,000 −4.4%
1947[36] 20,976,000 −17.8%
1952[37] 21,470,000 +2.4%
1954[38] 27,789,693 +29.4%
1964[39] 33,709,344 +21.3%
1982[40] 47,804,150 +41.8%
1990[41] 53,969,210 +12.9%
2000[42] 59,508,870 +10.3%
2010[43] 57,237,740 −3.8%
2020 57,752,557 +0.9%
Wuhan (Hankou) part of Hubei Province until 1927; dissolved in 1949 and incorporated into Hubei Province.

Han Chinese form the dominant ethnic group in Hubei. A considerable Miao and Tujia population live in the southwestern part of the province, especially in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture.

On October 18, 2009, Chinese officials began to relocate 330,000 residents from the Hubei and Henan provinces that will be affected by the Danjiangkou Reservoir on the Han river. The reservoir is part of the larger South-North Water Transfer Project.[44]


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Hubei[45][Note 1]

  Christianity (0.58%)
  Other religions or not religious people[Note 2] (92.92%)

The predominant religions in Hubei are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 6.5% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.58% of the population identifies as Christian, declining from 0.83% in 2004.[45] The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 92.92% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.


Hubei Museum of Art
Hubei Provincial Library

People in Hubei speak Mandarin dialects; most of these dialects are classified as Southwestern Mandarin dialects, a group that also encompasses the Mandarin dialects of most of southwestern China.[citation needed]

Perhaps the most celebrated element of Hubei cuisine is the Wuchang bream, a freshwater bream that is commonly steamed.[citation needed]

Types of traditional Chinese opera popular in Hubei include Hanju (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇; pinyin: Hàn Jù) and Chuju (楚剧; Chǔ Jù).

The Shennongjia area is the alleged home of the Yeren, a wild undiscovered hominid that lives in the forested hills.

The people of Hubei are given the uncomplimentary nickname "Nine-headed Birds" by other Chinese, from a mythological creature said to be very aggressive and hard to kill. "In the sky live nine-headed birds. On the earth live Hubei people." (天上九头鸟,地上湖北佬; Tiānshàng jiǔ tóu niǎo, dìshàng Húběi lǎo)

Wuhan is one of the major culture centers in China.

Hubei is thought to be the province that originated the card game of Dou Di Zhu.


The Huazhong University of Science and Technology(HUST), Wuhan University and many other institutions in Wuhan make it a hub of higher education and research in China. Wuhan is the city that has the largest college student population in the world (1.3 million) studying in its 89 universities.


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Boats on the Yangtze River in Wuhan

Prior to the construction of China's national railway network, the Yangtze and Hanshui Rivers had been the main transportation arteries of Hubei for many centuries, and still continue to play an important transport role.

Historically, Hubei's overland transport network was hampered by the lack of bridges across the Yangtze River, which divides the province into northern and southern regions. The first bridge across the Yangtze in Hubei, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in 1957, followed by the Zhicheng Bridge in 1971. As of October 2014, Hubei had 23 bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River, including nine bridges and three tunnels in Wuhan.


The railway from Beijing reached Wuhan in 1905, and was later extended to Guangzhou, becoming the first north-to-south railway mainline to cross China. A number of other lines crossed the province later on, including the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway and Beijing-Kowloon Railway, respectively, in the western and eastern part of the province.

The first decade of the 21st century has seen a large amount of new railway construction in Hubei. The Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway, roughly parallel to the original Wuhan-Guangzhou line, opened in late 2009, it was subsequently extended to the north, to Beijing becoming the Beijing–Guangzhou high-speed railway. An east-west high-speed corridor connecting major cities along the Yangtze, the Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu passenger railway was gradually opened between 2008 and 2012, the Wuhan–Yichang railway section of it opening in 2012.[46] The Wuhan–Xiaogan intercity railway was opened in December 2016 and it was extended when the Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway opened in November 2019.[47][48]


Hubei's main airport is Wuhan Tianhe International Airport. Yichang Sanxia Airport serves the Three Gorges region. There are also passenger airports in Xiangyang, Enshi, and Jingzhou (Shashi Airport, named after the city's Shashi District).


The province's best-known natural attraction (shared with the adjacent Chongqing municipality) is the scenic area of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze. Located in the far west of the province, the gorges can be conveniently visited by one of the numerous tourist boats (or regular passenger boats) that travel up the Yangtze from Yichang through the Three Gorges and into the neighboring Chongqing municipality.

The mountains of western Hubei, in particular in Shennongjia District, offer a welcome respite from Wuhan's and Yichang's summer heat, as well as skiing opportunities in winter. The tourist facilities in that area concentrate around Muyu in the southern part of Shennongjia, the gateway to Shennongjia National Nature Reserve (神农架国家自然保护区). Closer to the provincial capital, Wuhan, is the Mount Jiugong (Jiugongshan) national park, in Tongshan County near the border with Jiangxi.

A particular important site of both natural and cultural significance is Mount Wudang (Wudangshan) in the northwest of the province. Originally created early in the Ming dynasty, its building complex has been listed by UNESCO since 1994 as a World Heritage Site.

Other historic attractions in Hubei include:

East side of Jingzhou old city wall

The province also has historical sites connected with China's more recent history, such as the Wuchang Uprising Memorial in Wuhan, Project 131 site (a Cultural-Revolution-era underground military command center) in Xianning, and the National Mining Park (国家矿山公园) in Huangshi.[50]


University Stadium of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan

Professional sports teams in Hubei include:


In 2005, Hubei province signed a twinning agreement with Telemark county of Norway, and a "Norway-Hubei Week" was held in 2007.

See also




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  7. Script error: No such module "In lang". Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, People's Daily Online.
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  10. Constance A. Cook and John S. Major, eds. Defining Chu: Image and Reality in Ancient China, (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1999); Lothar von Falkenhausen, Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius (1000–250 BC): The Archaeological Evidence (Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, 2006), 262–88.
  11. 韩非子·初见秦》:秦与荆人战,大破荆,袭郢,取洞庭、五渚、江南。荆王君臣亡走,东服于陈。
  12. 史记·卷七十三·白起王翦列传》:其明年,攻楚,拔郢,烧夷陵,遂东至竟陵。楚王亡去郢,东走徙陈。
  13. 史记·卷七十三·白起王翦列传》:王翦果代李信击荆。荆闻王翦益军而来,乃悉国中兵以拒秦。王翦至,坚壁而守之,不肯战。荆兵数出挑战,终不出。王翦日休士洗沐,而善饮食抚循之,亲与士卒同食。久之,王翦使人问军中戏乎?对曰:“方投石超距。”于是王翦曰:“士卒可用矣。”荆数挑战而秦不出,乃引而东。翦因举兵追之,令壮士击,大破荆军。至蕲南,杀其将军项燕,荆兵遂败走。秦因乘胜略定荆地城邑。岁馀,虏荆王负刍,竟平荆地为郡县。。
  14. Brian Lander. State Management of River Dikes in Early China: New Sources on the Environmental History of the Central Yangzi Region . T'oung Pao 100.4-5 (2014): 325–362.
  15. 三国志·吴书·卷54/周瑜鲁肃吕蒙传·吕蒙传》:蒙入据城,尽得羽及将士家属,皆抚慰,约令军中不得干历人家,有所求取。蒙麾下士,是汝南人,取民家一笠,以覆官铠,官铠虽公,蒙犹以为犯军令,不可以乡里故而废法,遂垂涕斩之。于是军中震栗,道不拾遗。蒙旦暮使亲近存恤耆老,问所不足,疾病者给医药,饥寒者赐衣粮。羽府藏财宝,皆封闭以待权至。羽还,在道路,数使人与蒙相闻,蒙辄厚遇其使,周游城中,家家致问,或手书示信。羽人还,私相参讯,咸知家门无恙,见待过于平时,故羽吏士无鬬心。会权寻至,羽自知孤穷,乃走麦城,西至漳乡,众皆委羽而降。权使朱然、潘璋断其径路,即父子俱获,荆州遂定。
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  44. China to resettle 330,000 people The Philadelphia Inquirer Archived 2009-10-21 at the Wayback Machine
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
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  49. Eric N. Danielson, "The Ming Ancestor Tomb Archived 2014-12-30 at the Wayback Machine"
  50. "Mining for tourism in Hubei" Archived 2008-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, By Li Jing (China Daily). Updated: 2008-09-22


External links

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