Portal:Criminal justice

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Scales of Justice
Criminal justice is the system of practices, and organizations, used by national and local governments, directed at maintaining social control, deterring and controlling crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation. The primary agencies charged with these responsibilities are law enforcement (police and prosecutors), courts, defense attorneys and local jails and prisons which administer the procedures for arrest, charging, adjudication and punishment of those found guilty. When processing the accused through the criminal justice system, government must keep within the framework of laws that protect individual rights. The pursuit of criminal justice is, like all forms of "justice", "fairness" or "process", essentially the pursuit of an ideal. Throughout history, criminal justice has taken on many different forms which often reflect the cultural mores of society.
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A prostitution "reeducation center" at a former brothel in Beijing, 1949
Since the loosening of government controls over society in the early 1980s, prostitution in the People's Republic of China has not only reappeared, but can now be found throughout urban and rural areas. In spite of government efforts, prostitution has now developed to the extent that it comprises an industry, one that involves a great number of people and produces a considerable economic output. Prostitution has also become associated with a number of problems, including organised crime, government corruption and sexually transmitted diseases. Prostitution-related activities in mainland China are characterised by diverse types, venues and prices. Sellers of sex come from a broad range of social backgrounds. While the PRC government has always taken a hard line on organisers of prostitution, it has vacillated in its legal treatment of the prostitute herself, treating prostitution sometimes as a crime and sometimes as misconduct. Despite lobbying by international NGOs and overseas commentators, there is not much support for legalisation of the sex sector by the public, social organisations or the government of the PRC.

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Demonstration of police dogs in Houten, the Netherlands
Credit: Pethan

A police dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. They can also be known as a K9 unit (a homophone for canine), this is especially prevalent in the United States. The term is sometimes associated with German Shepherd dogs because of the long history of the use of the German Shepherd by the police and military for public order enforcement (and some forces use German Shepherds exclusively).

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Charles Edward Magoon was a prominent United States lawyer, judge, diplomat, and administrator who is best remembered as a governor of both the Panama Canal Zone and Cuba. He was also the subject of several small scandals during his career. As a legal adviser working for the United States Department of War, he drafted recommendations and reports that were used by Congress and the executive branch in governing the United States' new territories following the Spanish–American War. These reports were collected as a published book in 1902, then considered the seminal work on the subject. During his time as a governor, Magoon worked to put these recommendations into practice.

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Barry Goldwater
Extremism in the pursuit of liberty is no vice. ... Moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.

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Criminology

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