|File:Ferrari California – Frontansicht (2), 12. August 2013, Düsseldorf.jpg|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Grand tourer (S)|
|Body style||2-door, 2+2 coupé cabriolet|
|Layout||Front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive|
The Ferrari California is a grand touring sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Ferrari. It is a two door "2+2" hard top convertible. When originally released, the California was powered by a front-mid mounted gasoline direct injection 4.3 L (260 cu in) V8 with 460 PS (338 kW; 454 hp). The car revives the name used on the late-1950s Ferrari 250 GT Spyder California and the 1960s 365 California.
Ferrari California (2008–2014)
|Engine||4.3 L Ferrari F136 I V8|
|Wheelbase||2,670 mm (105.1 in)|
|Length||4,563 mm (179.6 in)|
|Width||1,902 mm (74.9 in)|
|Height||1,308 mm (51.5 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,630 kg (3,594 lb) (dry)|
|Successor||Ferrari California T|
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The California was launched at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. According to industry rumours, the California originally started as a concept for a new Maserati, but the resulting expense to produce the car led the Fiat Group to badge it as a Ferrari in order to justify the high cost of purchase; the company denies this, however. The California represents a new, fourth model range for the company.
The California represents a number of firsts for Ferrari:
- The first front engined Ferrari with a V8
- The first to feature a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission
- The first with a folding metal roof
- The first with multi-link rear suspension
- The first with direct petrol injection
Bosch produced the direct injection system. The engine displaces 4,297 cubic centimetres (262.2 cubic inches) and delivers 338 kW (453 bhp) at 7,750 rpm; its maximum torque produced is 485 N·m (358 lbf·ft) at 5,000 rpm. The resulting 79 kW (106 bhp) per litre of engine displacement is one of the highest for a naturally aspirated engine, as other manufacturers have used supercharging or turbocharging to reach similar power levels. The body computer system was developed by Magneti Marelli Automotive Lighting.
The original 2010 California had a top speed of 310 km/h (193 mph) and it could accelerate from zero to 100 km/h (62 mph) in under four seconds. Although that model was 180 kilograms (397 lb) heavier and 30 PS (22 kW; 30 hp) less powerful than the mid-engined F430, the California reached 97 km/h (60 mph) in the same time as the F430 due to the dual-clutch transmission.
Ferrari spent over 1,000 hours in the wind tunnel with a one-third-scale model of the California perfecting its aerodynamics. With the top up, the California has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.32, making it the most aerodynamic Ferrari ever made until the introduction of the Ferrari F12berlinetta.
On 15 February 2012, Ferrari announced an upgrade of the 2009 model which is lighter and more powerful. Changes include reducing body weight by 30 kg (66 lb), increased power by output of 30 PS (22 kW; 30 hp) and 15 N·m (11 lbf·ft), acceleration from 0–100 km/h (62 mph) time reduced to 3.8 seconds, introduction of Handling Speciale package and elimination of manual transmission following poor sales.
Handling Speciale package
To give the clients a more dynamic driving experience, an optional HS (Handling Speciale) package was developed as part of the update in 2012 (for the US 2013 model year). It can be recognized by a silver coloured grille and ventilation blisters behind the front wheel wells.
The HS package includes Delphi MagneRide magnetorheological dampers controlled by an ECU with 50% faster response time running patented Ferrari software, stiffer springs for more precise body control and a steering rack with a 9 per cent quicker steering ratio (2.3 turns lock to lock as opposed to the standard rack's 2.5).
In May 2012, Ferrari recalled the California because the engine could freeze suddenly and possibly cause a crash. The F136 engines had crankshafts that were machined incorrectly. The auto maker learned of the problem when it happened during a review by car critics. Owners could choose from having a new engine installed by their dealer, having the engine removed and the work done by Ferrari North America or having a new crankshaft and bearings installed at the dealership.
Ferrari California T (2014–)
|Ferrari California T|
|File:Ferrari California T - Mondial de l'Automobile de Paris 2014 - 003.jpg|
|Designer||Centro Stile Ferrari|
|Engine||3.9 L Ferrari F154 twin-turbo V8|
|Transmission||F1, dual clutch 7 gears + Reverse|
|Wheelbase||2,670 mm (105.1 in)|
|Length||4,570 mm (179.9 in)|
|Width||1,910 mm (75.2 in)|
|Height||1,322 mm (52.0 in)|
|Kerb weight||1,730 kg (3,814 lb)|
The Ferrari California T is an update of the earlier California featuring new sheetmetal, new interior, a revised chassis and a new turbocharged powertrain.
First unveiled on the web on February 12, 2014, subsequently the car debuted at the Geneva Motor Show (March 6–16, 2014). The T in the moniker stands for Turbo, a technology Ferrari last used on a roadcar on the F40. The car utilizes a new 3.9 liter bi-turbo V8 that produces 552 bhp (412 kW; 560 PS) @ 7,500 rpm and 557 lbs/torque @ 4,750 rpm as well as a 7-speed dual clutch gearbox with different gear ratios, a revised magnaride' adaptive suspension, as well as a new F1 Trac system. The car can accelerate from 0-62 mph (0-100 kmh) in 3.6 seconds and reach a top speed of 196 mph (315 km/h). The car also features a new front fascia that was influenced by the F12, a revised rear and a revised interior. Another improvement to the car is the reduction of emission pollution by 15% compared to its naturally aspirated predecessor. The car also utilizes small turbos and a variable boost management system to create no turbo lag.
It is also the first car in which Ferrari has introduced the new Apple CarPlay functionality into its built-in infotainment system – Apple confirmed at the launch of the Geneva Motor Show that Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo would be among the first car manufacturers to bring CarPlay compatible models to market.
- "New model: Ferrari California". italiaspeed.com. 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- "Ferrari California Begins Production on New Line". worldcarfans.com. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- Rufford, Nick (2008-10-19). "Ferrari California". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- "California dreaming". Top Gear. 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- Serafim, Mircea (2008-11-28). "Bosh provides gasoline direct injection for the new Ferrari California". inautonews.com. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
- Hart, Roger (2008-10-31). "Ferrari California First Drive: new car signals new direction for company". autoweek.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- Corsani, Lorenzo (2008-06-29). "Una nuova linea di produzione per la California". autoblog.it (in italiano). Retrieved 2013-06-27.
- Okulski, Travis (2014-12-04). "How This Year's Least Popular New Ferrari Could Become The Most Valuable In 30 Years". jalopnik.com.
- Pollard, Tim (2011-11-11). "Ferrari click-clack manual transmissions, RIP". Car Magazine. Retrieved 2015-11-08.
- McCausland, Evan (2012-04-20). "That Few? Only Two Ferrari Californias Sold With Manual Transmissions". automobilemag.com.
- Pimpo, Tony (2012-03-07). "Geneva: 2013 Ferrari California is More "Speciale"". automobilemag.com. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
- Harley, Michael (2012-03-27). "2013 Ferrari California loses weight and gains power to command more respect". autoblog.com.
- Bryant, Thos L. (2012-04-25). "2013 Ferrari California HS Photos, Specs, Price: The Handling Speciale package works wonders for the California.". Road & Track. Retrieved 2015-01-11.
- Gluckman, David (April 2012). "Great for greenies, great for performance: 2013 Ferrari California". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2015-01-11.
- Hirsch, Jerry (2012-05-21). "Ferrari recalls California, Italia models for faulty crankshafts". Los Angeles Times.
- "California T Specifications". Ferrari GT - en-EN. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
- Dredge, Stuart (2014-03-03). "Apple CarPlay debuts with Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-04-22.
- "The Ferrari California T and the Apple CarPlay equipped FF debut tomorrow at Geneva". Ferrari PR. Ferrari. 2014-03-03. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
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