Technology is the practical use of science, including the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning "study of-". The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
The technology of the Song Dynasty
(960–1279 AD) was advanced, providing some of the most prolific technological
advancements in Chinese history
, much of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations
. The ingenuity of mechanical engineering
had a long tradition in China. The Song Dynasty engineer Su Song
admitted that he and his contemporaries were building upon the achievements of the ancients such as Zhang Heng
, an astronomer, inventor, and early master of mechanical gears. The application of movable type printing
advanced the already widespread use of woodblock printing
to educate and amuse Confucian
students and the masses. The application of new weapons employing the use of gunpowder
enabled the Song Dynasty to ward off its militant enemies until its collapse to the Mongol
forces of Kublai Khan
, in the late 13th century. Notable advancements in civil engineering
, and metallurgy
were made in Song China, as well as the introduction of the windmill
to China during the 13th century. These advancements, along with the introduction of paper-printed money
, helped revolutionize and sustain the economy of the Song Dynasty
Template:/box-header Template:/Selected anniversaries/August
(1913–2006) was a Soviet
intelligence officer. According to Russian sources, Koval's infiltration of the Manhattan Project
as a Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate
(GRU) agent "drastically reduced the amount of time it took for Russia to develop nuclear weapons". Koval was born to Jewish immigrants in Sioux City, Iowa
. Shortly after reaching adulthood he traveled with his parents to the Soviet Union to settle in the Jewish Autonomous Region
near the Chinese border. Koval was recruited by the GRU, trained, and assigned the code name DELMAR. He returned to the United States in 1940 and was drafted into the US Army in early 1943. Koval worked at atomic research laboratories and, according to the Russian government, relayed back to the Soviet Union information about the production processes and volumes of the polonium
, and uranium
used in American atomic weaponry, in addition to descriptions of the weapon production sites. After the war, Koval left on a European vacation but never returned to the United States. In 2007 Russian President Vladimir Putin
posthumously awarded Koval the Hero of the Russian Federation
decoration for "his courage and heroism while carrying out special missions".
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