Technology is the practical use of science, including the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning "study of-". The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
), previously Mac OS X
, is a series of Unix
-based graphical interface operating systems
developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc.
It is designed to run exclusively on Mac
computers, having been pre-loaded on all Macs since 2002. It was the successor to Mac OS 9
, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS
, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0
in 1999, and a desktop version, Mac OS X v10.0
"Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of OS X are named after big cats
: for example, OS X v10.8 is referred to as "Mountain Lion
". OS X, whose X
is the Roman numeral for 10
and is a prominent part of its brand identity
, is built on technologies developed at NeXT
between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. The 'X' is also used to emphasize the relatedness between OS X and UNIX. Versions 10.5
"Leopard" running on Intel
"Snow Leopard", and 10.8
"Mountain Lion" have obtained UNIX 03
, which runs on the iPhone
, iPod Touch
, and the 2nd and 3rd generation Apple TV
, shares the Darwin
core and many frameworks with OS X. An unnamed variant of v10.4
powered the first generation Apple TV.
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was a Hungarian
-born American nuclear physicist
descent. He was known colloquially as "the father of
the hydrogen bomb
". Teller was an immigrant to the United States during the 1930s, and was an early member of the Manhattan Project
to develop the first atomic bombs. During this time he made a serious push for the first time to develop fusion
-based weapons as well, but they were deferred until after the war. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos
colleague J. Robert Oppenheimer
, Teller became ostracized by much of the scientific community. He continued to find support from the U.S. government and military research establishment. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
, and was both director and associate director for many years. In his later years he became especially known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor
using thermonuclear explosives. Over the course of his long life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and his difficult interpersonal relations, and is considered one of the key influences of the character Dr. Strangelove
in the 1964 movie of the same name.
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