|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1590s 1600s 1610s – 1620s – 1630s 1640s 1650s|
|Years:||1623 1624 1625 – 1626 – 1627 1628 1629|
|1626 by topic:|
|Arts and Science|
|Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial governors - State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births - Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments - Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2379|
|English Regnal year||1 Cha. 1 – 2 Cha. 1|
|Chinese calendar||乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
4322 or 4262
— to —
丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)
4323 or 4263
|- Vikram Samvat||1682–1683|
|- Shaka Samvat||1548–1549|
|- Kali Yuga||4727–4728|
|Japanese calendar||Kan'ei 3
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||286 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2168–2169|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1626.|
1626 (MDCXXVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (dominical letter D) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday (dominical letter A) of the Julian calendar, the 1626th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 626th year of the 2nd millennium, the 26th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1620s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1626 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January 7 – Polish-Swedish War: Gustavus II Adolphus defeats a Polish army in the Battle of Wallhof, Latvia.
- January 9 – Peter Minuit sails from Texel Island for America's New Netherland colony, with 2 ships of Dutch emigrants.
- February 2 – King Charles I of England is crowned, but without his wife, Henrietta Maria, who declines to participate in a non-Catholic ceremony.
- February 5 – The Huguenot rebels and the French government sign the Treaty of Paris, ending the second Huguenot rebellion.
- February 11 – Emperor Susenyos of Ethiopia and Patriarch Afonso Mendes declare the primacy of the Roman See over the Ethiopian Church and Roman Catholicism the state religion of Ethiopia.
- April 25 – Thirty Years' War: Albrecht von Wallenstein defeats Ernst von Mansfelds army in the Battle of Dessau Bridge.
- May 4 – Peter Minuit becomes director-general of New Netherland for the Dutch West India Company.
- May 24 – Peter Minuit buys Manhattan from a Native American tribe (Lenape or Shinnecock) for trade goods, valued at 60 guilders ("$24").
- June 15 – King Charles I of England dissolves the English Parliament.
- July 30 – An earthquake strikes Naples, killing 10,000.
- August 1 – Eighty Years' War: Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dietz retakes Oldenzaal, forcing Spain to withdraw from Overijssel.
- August 27 – Thirty Years' War: Tilly defeats king Christian IV of Denmark's army in the Battle of Lutter.
- September 30 – Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji.
- November 6 – (O.S.) The ship Arms of Amsterdam arrives in Europe from New Netherland (left September 23) with the news: "They have purchased the Island Manhattes [Manhattan] from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders." (from P. Schagen letter dated November 7).
- November 18 – The new St Peter's Basilica in the Vatican is consecrated, the anniversary of that of the previous church in 326.
- December 1 – Pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh, tyrannical Governor of Jerusalem, is forced out.
- December 20 – Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and Transylvanian monarch Bethlen Gabor sign the Peace of Pressburg.
- The Battle of Ningyuan in Xingcheng, Liaoning, China: With a much smaller force, the Ming Dynasty commander Yuan Chonghuan defeats the Manchu tribal leader Nurhaci, who dies soon after and is succeeded by Huang Taiji.
- When Quebec was first established its settlers depended on supplies sent from France. However, Champlain wanted the settlement at Quebec to be able to survive on its own. In 1626, Champlain decided to build a farm to raise livestock, or animals to provide food for the people living in the habitation. Champlain described the construction of Cap tourmente (Kap toor-mont) farm in one of his journals.
- The beginning of the Würzburg witch trial, which led to the mass executions of hundreds of people until 1631.
- January 9 – Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Rancé, Founder of the Trappist Order (d. 1700)
- January 13 – John Philip of Hanau-Lichtenberg, German nobleman (d. 1669)
- February 5 – Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné, French writer (d. 1696)
- February 7 – Fabian von Fersen, Swedish politician (d. 1677)
- February 18 – Francesco Redi, Italian physician (d. 1697)
- March 3 – John Hele, English politician (d. 1661)
- March 12 – John Aubrey, English antiquary and writer (d. 1697)
- March 16 – Cornelius Van Steenwyk, American politician (d. 1684)
- March 21 – Peter of Saint Joseph Betancur (d. 1667)
- March 30 – Atto Melani, Italian opera singer (d. 1714)
- April 6 – Robert Harley (died 1673) (d. 1673)
- April 10 – Franz Egon of Fürstenberg (d. 1682)
- April 23 – Maurice Henry, Prince of Nassau-Hadamar (d. 1679)
- April 25 – Sigmund von Birken, German poet of the Baroque (d. 1681)
- May 10 – Jan Jacobszoon Hinlopen, Dutch cloth merchant (d. 1666)
- May 12 – Louis Hennepin, Flemish Catholic missionary in North America (d. c. 1705)
- May 16 – Willem Joseph van Ghent, Dutch admiral (d. 1672)
- May 17 – Countess Palatine Eleonora Catherine of Zweibrücken, sister of King Charles X of Sweden (d. 1692)
- May 27 – William II, Prince of Orange (d. 1650)
- June 8 – William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford, member of England's House of Lords (d. 1695)
- June 9 – Sir John Newton, 2nd Baronet, Member of the English Parliament (d. 1699)
- June 18 – John Mordaunt, 1st Viscount Mordaunt, English royalist (d. 1675)
- June 29 – Jeffrey Daniel (MP), English politician (d. 1681)
- July 15 – Christiane Sehested, daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and his morganatic spouse Kirsten Munk (d. 1670)
- July 15 – Hedevig Ulfeldt, daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk (d. 1678)
- July 17 – Henriette Marie of the Palatinate (d. 1651)
- August 1 – Charles le Moyne de Longueuil et de Châteauguay (d. 1685)
- August 1 – Sabbatai Zevi, Sephardic Rabbi (d. 1676)
- August 12 – Giovanni Legrenzi, Italian composer (d. 1690)
- September 8 – Simon Patrick, English theologian and bishop (d. 1707)
- September 16 – Leopold Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden, Imperial Field Marschal (d. 1671)
- September 27 – William Douglas, 2nd Lord Mordington, eldest son and heir of Sir James Douglas (d. 1671)
- September 28 – Elizabeth Maitland, Duchess of Lauderdale, influential British noblewoman (d. 1698)
- October 4 – Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland (d. 1712)
- October 5 – George II, Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard (d. 1699)
- October 6 – Géraud de Cordemoy, French philosopher (d. 1684)
- October 17 – Samuel Danforth, Puritan minister (d. 1674)
- October 23 – Francis Marsh (d. 1693)
- November 8 – César-Pierre Richelet, French grammarian and lexicographer (d. 1698)
- December 8 – Queen Christina of Sweden (d. 1689)
- November 30 – Cesare Pronti, Italian painter (d. 1708)
- December 10 – George Christian, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (d. 1677)
- December 12 – Giovanni Francesco Ginetti, nephew of Cardinal Marzio Ginetti (d. 1691)
- December 18 – William Stanhope (1626–1703), politician (d. 1703)
- December 20 – Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff, German statesman (d. 1692)
- December 21 – Francis Scott, 2nd Earl of Buccleuch, son of Walter Scott (d. 1651)
- December 31 – Ladislaus, Count Esterházy, Hungarian noble (d. 1652)
- January 24 – Samuel Argall, English adventurer and naval officer (b. 1580)
- February 7 – William V, Duke of Bavaria (b. 1548)
- February 11 – Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician (b. 1552)
- February 20 – John Dowland, English composer and lutenist (b. 1563)
- April 9 – Francis Bacon, English scientist and statesman (b. 1561)
- April 11 – Marin Getaldić, Croatian scientist (b. 1568)
- May 4 – Arthur Lake, Bishop of Bath and Wells, English bishop and Bible translator (b. 1569)
- May 17 – Joan Pau Pujol, Catalan composer (b. 1570)
- July 13 – Robert Sidney, 1st Earl of Leicester, English statesman (b. 1563)
- September 21 – François de Bonne, duc de Lesdiguières, Constable of France (b. 1543)
- September 25 – Lancelot Andrewes, English scholar (b. 1555)
- September 26 – Wakisaka Yasuharu, Japanese warrior (b. 1554)
- September 30 – Nurhaci, Chinese chieftain (b. 1559)
- October 2 – Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, conde de Gondomar, Spanish diplomat (b. 1567)
- October 30 – Willebrord Snell, Dutch astronomer and mathematician (b. 1580)
- November 25 – Edward Alleyn, English actor (b. 1566)
- November 29 – Ernst von Mansfeld, German soldier (b. c. 1580)
- December 8 – John Davies, English poet (b. 1569)
- December 10 – Edmund Gunter, English mathematician (b. 1581)