List of Presidents of the United States by date of death
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This is a complete list of United States Presidents by date of death. There are currently four living former Presidents (George H. W. Bush, Jimmy Carter, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton in order from oldest to youngest), as well as the current President Barack Obama.
- 1 List
- 2 Facts
- 2.1 Died in office
- 2.2 Died on the same day in the same year
- 2.3 Died same year but not the same month
- 2.4 Died on the same day but not in the same year
- 2.5 Died on the same day of the month
- 2.6 Died earliest and latest in the calendar year
- 2.7 Died one year, buried the next
- 2.8 Most and fewest deaths by month
- 2.9 Most former presidents to die during a single presidential administration
- 2.10 Presidential couples who died during a single administration or term
- 2.11 Vice Presidents and first ladies who died during these presidential administrations
- 2.12 Survived by a parent
- 2.13 Widowers
- 2.14 The Curse of Tippecanoe
- 2.15 Longevity
- 2.16 State funerals
- 2.17 Burial sites
- 2.18 Presidential re-interments
- 2.19 Died at the same age
- 2.20 Died before predecessor(s)
- 2.21 Former Presidents who died during their immediate successor's administration or term
- 2.22 Presidents who survived their vice-president
- 2.23 List of Presidents who died during a later administration
- 3 Notes and references
- 4 External links
- OD = Order of Death
- OO = Order of Office
- OB = Order of Birth
- a indicates the president died in office
- b indicates the president was assassinated
Died in office
- William Henry Harrison (1841, pneumonia and pleurisy from undisclosed illness)
- Zachary Taylor (1850, gastroenteritis)
- Abraham Lincoln (1865, assassinated)
- James Garfield (1881, assassinated)
- William McKinley (1901, assassinated)
- Warren G. Harding (1923, suspected heart attack)
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1945, cerebral hemorrhage)
- John F. Kennedy (1963, assassinated)
Note: Of the presidents listed above, Zachary Taylor, Abraham Lincoln and William McKinley are the only ones to have a former president die during their administrations and prior to their subsequent deaths; James Polk died on Zachary Taylor's 103rd day in office, John Tyler and Martin Van Buren died during Abraham Lincoln's administration and Benjamin Harrison died 187 days before the assassination of William McKinley. William Henry Harrison, James Garfield and Warren G. Harding did not have a former president, vice president or First Lady die during their administrations.
The Roosevelts are the only ones with only one living predecessor at the time of their deaths (Grover Cleveland and Herbert Hoover respectively).
Of the four presidents who were assassinated, John F. Kennedy is the only one to die on the same day he was attacked.
Died on the same day in the same year
- John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
Died same year but not the same month
- John Tyler and Martin Van Buren both died in 1862 on January 18 and July 24 respectively
- Benjamin Harrison and William McKinley both died in 1901 on March 13 and September 14 respectively
Died on the same day but not in the same year
- James Monroe in 1831 and John Adams and Thomas Jefferson in 1826 all died on July 4
- Harry Truman in 1972 and Gerald Ford in 2006 both died on December 26
- Millard Fillmore in 1874 and William Howard Taft in 1930 both died on March 8
Died on the same day of the month
- Four presidents each died on the fourth or eighth day of a month.
Died earliest and latest in the calendar year
- Calvin Coolidge died on January 5, 1933, the earliest in the calendar year a president has died.
- Gerald Ford died on December 26, 2006 at 6:45 PM, the latest in the calendar year a president has died. Harry Truman also died on December 26 (exactly 34 years earlier, in 1972); he died earlier in the day, at 7:47AM.
Died one year, buried the next
- Gerald Ford is the only president to die in one year (December 26, 2006) and be buried in the next (January 3, 2007).
Most and fewest deaths by month
- Seven presidents – John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Zachary Taylor, Martin van Buren, Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant – have died during the month of July.
- Only one president – Warren G. Harding – has died in the month of August.
- None have died during May.
Most former presidents to die during a single presidential administration
- Three presidents died during the Grant administration (Franklin Pierce, Millard Fillmore, and Andrew Johnson).
- Three during the Nixon administration (Dwight Eisenhower, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon Johnson).
- George W. Bush is the ninth president to have multiple former presidents die during an administration (Ronald Reagan and Gerald Ford).
- Martin Van Buren and John Tyler died during Abraham Lincoln's administration
- Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died during the latter's son John Quincy Adams's administration.
- Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams died during the administration of James Polk.
- James Madison and James Monroe died during Andrew Jackson's administration.
- Ulysses S. Grant and Chester A. Arthur died during Grover Cleveland's administration.
- William Howard Taft and Calvin Coolidge died during Herbert Hoover's administration.
Presidential couples who died during a single administration or term
- James and Elizabeth Kortright Monroe both died during Andrew Jackson's second term.
- Margaret Taylor died before Millard Fillmore finished her late husband Zachary's only term.
- Andrew and Eliza McCardle Johnson both died during Ulysses S. Grant's second term.
- Rutherford and Lucy Webb Hayes both died during Benjamin Harrison's only term.
- Florence Harding died before Calvin Coolidge finished her late husband Warren's only term.
- Richard and Pat Nixon both died during Bill Clinton's first term.
- Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman, though they had been divorced for more than 50 years, both died during George W. Bush's administration.
Vice Presidents and first ladies who died during these presidential administrations
- Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan died during Barack Obama's administration.
- Lady Bird Johnson died during George W. Bush's administration.
- Spiro T. Agnew and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis died during Bill Clinton's first term.
- Bess Truman died during Ronald Reagan's first term.
- Mamie Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller and Hubert Humphrey died during Jimmy Carter's administration.
- Henry Wallace and John Nance Garner died during Lyndon Johnson's administration.
- Eleanor Roosevelt died during John F. Kennedy's administration,
- Daniel D. Tompkins died during the administration of John Quincy Adams.
- Aaron Burr, Elizabeth Monroe and Martha Jefferson Randolph died during Andrew Jackson's administration.
- Charles Fairbanks, Levi P. Morton, Lucretia Garfield and Adlai Stevenson I died during the administration of Woodrow Wilson.
- John Calhoun and Dolley Madison died during the administration of Zachary Taylor.
- Charles Curtis, Lou Hoover and Helen Taft died during the administration of Franklin Roosevelt.
- Charles Dawes, Frances Folsom Cleveland Preston and Edith Roosevelt died during the administration of Harry Truman.
- Eliza Johnson and John Cabell Breckinridge died during the administration of Ulysses Grant.
- Anna Harrison, Jane Pierce, and George M. Dallas died during the administration of Abraham Lincoln.
- Hannibal Hamlin, Sarah Polk, Julia Tyler, and Lucy Webb Hayes died during the administration of Benjamin Harrison
- William A. Wheeler died during the first administration of Grover Cleveland
- No Vice President or First Lady died during his second administration.
- Thomas Marshall and Florence Harding died during the administration of Calvin Coolidge
- Alben Barkley and Grace Coolidge died during the administration of Dwight Eisenhower
- Martha Washington died during the administration of Thomas Jefferson
- Louisa Adams, Richard Johnson and Margaret Taylor died during the administration of Millard Fillmore
- Julia Grant, Ida Saxton McKinley and Harriet Lane died during the administration of Theodore Roosevelt
- Mary Lincoln and Schuyler Colfax died during the administration of Chester Arthur
Survived by a parent
- James K. Polk (died 1849) was survived by his mother Jane Polk (died 1852). Of the four Presidents to be survived by a parent, Polk is the only one who was out of office at the time of his death.
- James A. Garfield (died 1881) was survived by his mother Eliza Ballou Garfield (died 1888).
- Warren G. Harding (died 1923) was survived by his father Dr. George Tryon Harding (died 1928).
- John F. Kennedy (assassinated 1963) is the only president to have both of his parents, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. (died 1969) and Rose Kennedy (died 1995), survive him as well as the only president to have predeceased a grandparent. His grandmother, Mary Josephine Hannon Fitzgerald, died in 1964 at the age of 98.
- John Adams died in 1826. His wife Abigail Adams died in 1818.
- Thomas Jefferson also died in 1826. His wife Martha Jefferson died in 1782.
- James Monroe died in 1831. His wife Elizabeth Monroe died in 1830.
- Andrew Jackson died in 1845. His wife Rachel Jackson died in 1828.
- Martin Van Buren died in 1862. His wife Hannah Van Buren died in 1819.
- Franklin Pierce died in 1869. His wife Jane Pierce died in 1863.
- Chester A. Arthur died in 1886. His wife Ellen Arthur died in 1880.
- Rutherford B. Hayes died in 1893. His wife Lucy Hayes died in 1889.
- Herbert Hoover died in 1964. His wife Lou Hoover died in 1944.
- Richard Nixon died in 1994. His wife Pat Nixon died in 1993.
Letitia Christian Tyler, Abigail Fillmore, Caroline Harrison and Ellen Wilson died before husbands John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Benjamin Harrison and Woodrow Wilson, Tyler, Harrison and Wilson dying during their husbands' presidencies, and Fillmore died less than a month after her husband left office. However these Presidents remarried to Julia Tyler, Caroline C. Fillmore, Mary Dimmick Harrison and Edith Galt Wilson
The Curse of Tippecanoe
The Curse of Tippecanoe is attributed to Tenskwatawa, or The Prophet, the brother of the famous Shawnee leader, Tecumseh. The Prophet is said to have cursed William Henry Harrison while on his deathbed. He cursed not only Harrison, but the office of the President. The Prophet said Harrison would be elected President, but would die soon after taking office, and every twenty years after Harrison a President will die in office. From 1841 to 1963, all U.S. Presidents who had been elected in a year ending in 0 died in office. These seven Presidents were:
- 1840 – William Henry Harrison, who died in 1841 during his first term; He was 68 years old.
- 1860 – Abraham Lincoln, who was assassinated in 1865 during his second term; He was 56 years old.
- 1880 – James A. Garfield, who was assassinated in 1881 during his first term; He was 49 years old.
- 1900 – William McKinley, who was assassinated in 1901 during his second term; He was 58 years old.
- 1920 – Warren G. Harding, who died in 1923 during his first term; He was 57 years old.
- 1940 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who died in 1945 during his fourth term; He was 63 years old.
- 1960 – John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated in 1963 during his first term, at the age of 46.
- 1980 – Ronald Reagan, initially elected in 1980, narrowly survived an assassination attempt in 1981 during the first of his two terms.
- 2000 – George W. Bush, initially elected in 2000, served two full terms without dying. Nevertheless, there were three assassination attempts, and an incidence of fainting after he choked on a pretzel.
- Of all the Presidents who have died in office, Zachary Taylor was the only one not elected in a 0 year. He was elected in 1848, but died in a year ending in 0 (1850). He was also a Whig like Harrison; the only Whig presidents elected both died in office.
- Abraham Lincoln – Funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln
- James A. Garfield
- William McKinley
- Warren G. Harding
- William Howard Taft
- John F. Kennedy – State funeral of John F. Kennedy
- Herbert Hoover
- Dwight D. Eisenhower
- Lyndon B. Johnson
- Ronald Reagan – Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan
- Gerald Ford – Death and state funeral of Gerald Ford
- Eighteen states (California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and Vermont), as well as the District of Columbia, lay claim to Presidential burial sites.
- More Presidents (7) are buried in Virginia than any other state.
- The only President buried in the District of Columbia is Woodrow Wilson, who was interred in the National Cathedral.
- Additionally, there are three sites – United First Parish Church, Quincy, Massachusetts, Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia, and Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia – which are home to two Presidents. John Adams and his son John Quincy Adams are entombed in the crypt of the United First Parish Church. William Howard Taft and John F. Kennedy are buried in Arlington National Cemetery. John Tyler and James Monroe are both buried in Hollywood Cemetery (although Monroe was originally interred in New York City, the place of his death).
- Because the State of Virginia was part of the Confederate States of America at the time of his passing in 1862, John Tyler could be considered the only President not only to have died outside U. S. soil, but also to have been buried there. Additionally, Tyler was the only U.S. President to have a Confederate flag draped over his coffin.
- George Washington was interred in the "old tomb" at Mount Vernon in 1799. In 1831 he was moved to the current tomb that was built to specifications laid out in his will.
- John Adams was buried at Hancock Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1826 and then moved across the street to the basement of the United First Parish Church in 1828.
- James Monroe was interred in New York in 1831 and Virginia in 1858.
- John Quincy Adams was temporarily interred in Washington, D.C. before being moved to Hancock Cemetery in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1848. In 1852 he was moved across the street to the basement of the United First Parish Church.
- William Henry Harrison was temporarily interred in Washington D.C. in April 1841 before his final interment in Ohio in June 1841.
- James Knox Polk was first interred at the City Cemetery in Nashville, Tennessee in 1849. In 1850 his widow had him moved to Polk Place. His remains were again moved to the Tennessee State Capitol building in 1893.
- Zachary Taylor, after being temporarily interred in Washington, D.C., was interred in Louisville, Kentucky in 1850 and re-interred at the same place in 1991 after an autopsy.
- Abraham Lincoln was interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois in 1865 and re-interred at the same cemetery, yet in a more protective vault in 1901.
- Ulysses S. Grant was interred at Riverside Park in New York City in 1885 and in the General Grant National Memorial (better known as Grant's Tomb) overlooking the Hudson River in 1897.
- Rutherford B. Hayes was interred in Oakwood Cemetery in 1893 and Spiegel Grove estate in 1915, both in Fremont, Ohio.
- James Garfield was interred at the mausoleum in Cleveland, Ohio's Lake View Cemetery in 1881. He was moved to the Garfield Monument when it was completed in 1890.
- William McKinley was interred in West Lawn Cemetery in 1901 and McKinley National Memorial in 1907, both in Canton, Ohio.
- Woodrow Wilson was interred at the Bethlehem Chapel in the Washington National Cathedral in 1924. He was then moved to the Woodrow Wilson Bay in the cathedral nave in 1956.
- Warren G. Harding was interred in Marion Cemetery in 1923 and Harding Memorial in 1927, both in Marion, Ohio.
- John Kennedy was interred at Arlington National Cemetery during the public funeral on November 25, 1963. He was moved to the current location in the cemetery on March 14, 1967.
Died at the same age
- Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan both died at 93.
- John Adams and Herbert Hoover both died at 90.
- Andrew Jackson and Dwight D. Eisenhower both died at 78.
- John Tyler and Grover Cleveland both died at 71.
- George Washington, Benjamin Harrison and Woodrow Wilson all died at 67.
- Franklin Pierce and Lyndon B. Johnson both died at 64.
- Ulysses Grant and Franklin D. Roosevelt both died at 63.
- Theodore Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge both died at 60.
- Chester A. Arthur and Warren G. Harding both died at 57.
None of these Presidents survived their last birthday in their life for the same number of days.
Died before predecessor(s)
3rd President Thomas Jefferson (died 12:45 PM on July 4, 1826)
- Five hours and fifteen minutes before 2nd President John Adams (died 6:00 PM on July 4, 1826)
5th President James Monroe (died July 4, 1831)
- James Madison (died June 28, 1836) 4 years, 360 days before 4th President
7th President Andrew Jackson (died June 8, 1845)
- John Quincy Adams (died February 23, 1848) 2 years, 260 days before 6th President
9th President William Henry Harrison (died April 4, 1841)
10th President John Tyler (died January 18, 1862)
- Martin Van Buren (died July 24, 1862) 187 days before 8th President
11th President James K. Polk (died June 15, 1849)
12th President Zachary Taylor (died July 9, 1850)
14th President Franklin Pierce (died October 8, 1869)
- Millard Fillmore (died March 8, 1874) 4 years, 151 days before 13th President
15th President James Buchanan (died June 1, 1868)
16th President Abraham Lincoln (assassinated April 15, 1865)
20th President James A. Garfield (assassinated September 19, 1881)
21st President Chester A. Arthur (died November 19, 1886)
- Rutherford B. Hayes (died January 17, 1893) 6 years, 59 days before 19th President
25th President William McKinley (assassinated September 14, 1901)
- Grover Cleveland (died June 24, 1908) 6 years, 284 days before 22nd & 24th President
28th President Woodrow Wilson (died February 3, 1924)
- William Howard Taft (died March 8, 1930) 6 years, 33 days before 27th President
29th President Warren Harding (died August 2, 1923)
32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt (died April 12, 1945)
- Herbert Hoover (died October 20, 1964) 19 years, 191 days before 31st President
34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower (died March 28, 1969)
- Harry S. Truman (died December 26, 1972) 3 years, 273 days before 33rd President
35th President John F. Kennedy (assassinated November 22, 1963)
40th President Ronald Reagan (died June 5, 2004)
Former Presidents who died during their immediate successor's administration or term
- George Washington died during John Adams' administration
- James K. Polk died on Zachary Taylor's 103rd day in office
- James Buchanan died before Andrew Johnson completed his successor Abraham Lincoln's second term
- Andrew Johnson died during Ulysses S. Grant's second term
- Chester A. Arthur died during Grover Cleveland's first administration
- Woodrow Wilson died before Calvin Coolidge completed his successor Warren Harding's only term
- Calvin Coolidge died during the end of Herbert Hoover's administration
- Lyndon Johnson died two days after Richard Nixon's second inauguration
Among these Presidents, all except James Polk were older than their immediate successors. James K. Polk was 11 years younger than Zachary Taylor. Polk was also the only one among this list whose direct successor died in office and he still remains one of the two former Presidents who died during older successors' administration, the other being Theodore Roosevelt, who died during the second term of Woodrow Wilson, who was 2 years older. Also, Andrew Johnson was the only President whose wife also died during his immediate successor's term. His wife Eliza McCardle Johnson, died on January 16, 1876, six months after her husband's death and one year before the end of Ulysses S. Grant's administration. George Washington was the only one whose immediate successor was also his Vice President (John Adams served under him for 8 years) and he is one of the only two former Presidents who died during their Vice Presidents administration, the other being Dwight Eisenhower, who died during Richard Nixon's adminiatration. Buchanan and Wilson died before the terms of their immediate successors, both of them who died in office, were completed by their Vice Presidents, who themselves went to die during their immediate successor's administration.
Presidents who survived their vice-president
- John Adams, who died at 6:00 PM on July 4, 1826, outlived his Vice President Thomas Jefferson, who died on the same day at 12:45 PM, for 5 hours and 15 minutes.
- Thomas Jefferson survived second vice-president George Clinton, who died in office on April 20, 1812, for 14 years, 2 months and 14 days. Clinton also served as vice-president for James Madison, who also survived him.
- Madison also survived Elbridge Gerry, who died in office, by 21 years.
- Martin Van Buren survived his vice-president Richard Mentor Johnson by more than 10 years.
- Franklin Pierce survived vice-president William R. King, who died in office.
- Ulysses S. Grant survived vice-present Henry Wilson,who died in office, by 10 years.
- Rutherford B. Hayes survived vice-president William A. Wheeler by 6 years.
- William McKinley's first vice-president Garret Hobart died in office on November 21, 1899, 22 months before McKinley was assassinated whilst in office.
- Theodore Roosevelt's vice-president Charles W. Fairbanks died on June 4, 1918. Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919, seven months after Fairbanks.
- William Howard Taft's vice-president James S. Sherman died on October 30, 1912, while Taft died on March 8, 1930, 17 years after Sherman.
- Herbert Hoover's vice-president Charles Curtis died on February 8, 1936. Hoover died on October 20, 1964, 28 years after Curtis.
- Harry S. Truman's vice-president Alben Barkley died on April 30, 1956. Truman died on December 26, 1972, over 16 years after Barkley.
- Gerald Ford's vice-president Nelson Rockefeller died on January 26, 1979. Ford died on December 26, 2006, over 27 years after Rockefeller.
List of Presidents who died during a later administration
- John Adams (March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801)
- George Washington died on December 14, 1799, at the age of 67
- John Quincy Adams (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829)
- Andrew Jackson (March 4, 1829 – March 4, 1837)
- James K. Polk (March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849)
- Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)
- James K. Polk died on June 15, 1849 at the age of 53
- Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865)
- Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869)
- James Buchanan died on June 1, 1868 at the age of 77
- Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877)
- Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889; First Term)
- Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889 – March 4, 1893)
- Rutherford B. Hayes died on January 17, 1893 at the age of 70
- William McKinley (March 4, 1897 – September 19, 1901)
- Benjamin Harrison died on March 13, 1901 at the age of 67
- Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909)
- Grover Cleveland died on June 24, 1908 at the age of 71
- Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921)
- Theodore Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919 at the age of 60
- Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929)
- Woodrow Wilson died on February 3, 1924 at the age of 67
- Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969)
- Herbert Hoover died on October 20, 1964 at the age of 90
- Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974)
- Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001)
- Richard Nixon died on April 22, 1994 at the age of 81
- George W. Bush (January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009)
Notes and references
Some times of death are approximate, and all are given in local times.
- Wallenborn, White McKenzie, M.D. (November 5, 1997). "George Washington's Terminal Illness: A Modern Medical Analysis of the Last Illness and Death of George Washington". The Papers of George Washington. University of Virginia.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents.
- "Jefferson's Cause of Death". Thomas Jefferson Foundation. Retrieved August 27, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Originally interred at the Gouverneur family vault, New York City on July 7, 1831. Monroe was reinterred in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, VA, July 5, 1858.
- Jane McHugh, Philip A. Mackowiak (March 31, 2014). "What Really Killed William Henry Harrison?". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Widmer, Edward L. (2008). Ark of the liberties: America and the world. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-8090-2735-4. OCLC 191882004. Retrieved August 2, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dusinberre, William (2003). Slavemaster President: The Double Career of James Polk. ISBN 0-19-515735-4. External link in
- "President Zachary Taylor and the Laboratory: Presidential Visit from the Grave". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Missing or empty
- Jeffrey M. Jones MD. "Presidential Stroke: United States Presidents and Cerebrovascular Disease (John Tyler)". Journal CMEs. CNS Spectrums (The International Journal of Neuropsychiatric Medicine). Retrieved August 31, 2014. Unknown parameter
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- "Former President Ulysses S. Grant dies". History. Retrieved September 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cause is disputed.
- Ford is the only president whose immediate burial following death is in a different year. Other presidents have been reinterred years after death, such as Monroe (see Note 3, above), Garfield, Hayes, and McKinley.
- Chilcote (2006-01-11). "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. Retrieved 2007-01-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>