United States presidential election

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The election of President and Vice President of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the fifty states or Washington, D.C. cast ballots for a set of members of the U.S. Electoral College, known as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes, known as electoral votes, for President and Vice President of the United States. The candidate who receives an absolute majority of electoral votes for President or Vice President is then elected to that office. If no candidate receives an absolute majority for President, the House of Representatives chooses the President; if no one receives a majority for Vice President, then the Senate chooses the Vice President. The Electoral College and its procedure is established in the U.S. Constitution by Article II, Section 1, Clauses 2 and 4; and the Twelfth Amendment (which replaced Clause 3 after it was ratified in 1804).

These presidential elections occur quadrennially, with registered voters casting their ballots on Election Day, which since 1845 has been the Tuesday after the first Monday in November,[1][2][3] coinciding with the general elections of various other federal, state, and local races. The next U.S. presidential election is scheduled for November 8, 2016.

Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, each state legislature is allowed to designate a way of choosing electors. Thus, the popular vote on Election Day is conducted by the various states and not directly by the federal government. In other words, it is really an amalgamation of separate elections held in each state and Washington, D.C. instead of a single national election. Once chosen, the electors can vote for anyone, but – with rare exceptions like an unpledged elector or faithless elector – they vote for their designated candidates and their votes are certified by Congress, who is the final judge of electors, in early January. The presidential term then officially begins on Inauguration Day, January 20 (although the formal inaugural ceremony traditionally takes place on the 21st if the 20th is a Sunday).

The nomination process, consisting of the primary elections and caucuses and the nominating conventions, was never specified in the Constitution, and was instead developed over time by the states and the political parties. The primary elections are staggered generally between January and June before the general election in November, while the nominating conventions are held in the summer. This too is also an indirect election process, where voters from each U.S. state and Washington, D.C., as well as those in U.S. territories, cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who then in turn elect their party's presidential nominee. Each party's presidential nominee then chooses a vice presidential running mate to join with him or her on the same ticket, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention. Because of changes to national campaign finance laws since the 1970s regarding the disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns, presidential candidates from the major political parties usually declare their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year before the election.[4] Thus, the entire modern presidential campaign and election process usually takes almost two years.


Article Two of the United States Constitution originally established the method of presidential elections, including the Electoral College. This was a result of a compromise between those constitutional framers who wanted the Congress to choose the president, and those who preferred a national popular vote.[5]

Each state is allocated a number of electors that is equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined. With the ratification of the 23rd Amendment to the Constitution in 1961, the District of Columbia is also granted a number of electors, equal to the number of those held by the least populous state. However, U.S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College.

Constitutionally, the manner for choosing electors is determined within each state by its legislature. During the first presidential election in 1789, only 6 of the 13 original states chose electors by any form of popular vote.[6] Gradually throughout the years, the states began conducting popular elections to help choose their slate of electors, resulting in the overall, nationwide indirect election system that it is today.

Under the original system established by Article Two, electors could cast two votes to two different candidates for president. The candidate with the highest number of votes (provided it was a majority of the electoral votes) became the president, and the second-place candidate became the vice president. This presented a problem during the presidential election of 1800 when Aaron Burr received the same number of electoral votes as Thomas Jefferson and challenged Jefferson's election to the office. In the end, Jefferson was chosen as the president because of Alexander Hamilton's influence in the House of Representatives. This added to the deep rivalry between Burr and Hamilton which resulted in their famous 1804 duel.

In response to the 1800 election, the 12th Amendment was passed, requiring electors to cast two distinct votes: one for President and another for Vice President. While this solved the problem at hand, it ultimately had the effect of lowering the prestige of the Vice Presidency, as the office was no longer for the leading challenger for the Presidency. The separate ballots for President and Vice President became something of a moot issue later in the 19th century when it became the norm for popular elections to determine a state's Electoral College delegation. Electors chosen this way are pledged to vote for a particular presidential and vice presidential candidate (offered by the same political party). So, while the Constitution says that the President and Vice President are chosen separately, in practice they are chosen together.

The 12th Amendment also established rules when no candidate wins a majority vote in the Electoral College. In the presidential election of 1824, Andrew Jackson received a plurality, but not a majority, of electoral votes cast. The election was thrown to the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams was elected to the presidency. A deep rivalry resulted between Andrew Jackson and House Speaker Henry Clay, who had also been a candidate in the election.

Since 1824, aside from the occasional "faithless elector," the popular vote determines the winner of a presidential election by determining the electoral vote, as each state or district's popular vote determines its electoral college vote. Although the nationwide popular vote does not directly determine the winner of a presidential election, it does strongly correlate with who is the victor. In 52 of the 56 total elections held so far (about 93 percent), the winner of the national popular vote has also carried the Electoral College vote. The winners of the nationwide popular vote and the Electoral College vote differ only in close elections. In highly competitive elections, candidates focus on turning out their vote in the contested swing states critical to winning an electoral college majority, so they do not try to maximize their popular vote by real or fraudulent vote increases in one-party areas.[7]

However, candidates can fail to get the most votes in the nationwide popular vote in a Presidential election and still win that election. In the 1824 election, Jackson won the popular vote, but no one received the majority of electoral votes. According to the 12th Amendment in the Constitution, the House of Representatives must choose the president out of the top 3 people in the election. Clay had come fourth, so he threw his support to Adams, who then won. Because Adams later named Clay his Secretary of State, Jackson's supporters claimed that Adams gained the presidency by making a deal with Clay. Charges of a "corrupt bargain" followed Adams through his term. Then in 1876, 1888 and 2000, the winner of electoral vote lost the popular vote outright. Numerous constitutional amendments have been submitted seeking to replace the Electoral College with a direct popular vote, but none has ever successfully passed both Houses of Congress. Another alternate proposal is the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, an interstate compact whereby individual participating states agree to allocate their electors based on the winner of the national popular vote instead of just their respective statewide results.

The presidential election day was established on a Tuesday in the month of November because of the factors involved (weather, harvests and worship). When voters used to travel to the polls by horse, Tuesday was an ideal day because it allowed people to worship on Sunday, ride to their county seat on Monday, and vote on Tuesday–all before market day, Wednesday. The month of November also fits nicely between harvest time and harsh winter weather, which could be especially bad to people traveling by horse and buggy.[8]

Until 1937, presidents were not sworn in until March 4 because it took so long to count and report ballots, and because of the winner's logistical issues of moving to the capital. With better technology and the 20th Amendment being passed, presidential inaugurations were moved to noon on January 20–allowing presidents to start their duties sooner.[8]

The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 was enacted to increase disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns. Subsequent amendments to law require that candidates to a federal office must file a Statement of Candidacy with the Federal Election Commission before they can receive contributions aggregating in excess of $5,000 or make expenditures aggregating in excess of $5,000. Thus, this began a trend of presidential candidates declaring their intentions to run as early as the Spring of the previous calendar year so they can start raising and spending the money needed for their nationwide campaign.[4]

The first president, George Washington, was elected as an independent. Since the election of his successor, John Adams, in 1796, all winners of U.S. presidential elections have represented one of two major parties. Third parties have taken second place only twice, in 1860 and 1912. The last time a third (independent) candidate achieved significant success (although still finishing in third place) was in 1992.


Eligibility requirements

Article Two of the United States Constitution stipulates that for a person to serve as President, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years. A candidate may start running his or her campaign early before turning 35 years old or completing 14 years of residency, but must meet the age and residency requirements by Inauguration Day. The Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution also sets a term limit: a President cannot be elected to more than two terms.

The U.S. Constitution also has two provisions that apply to all federal offices in general, not just the presidency. Article I, Section 3, Clause 7 states that if the U.S. Congress convicts any officer on impeachment, they may also bar that person from holding any public office in the future. And Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment prohibits the election to any federal office of any person who had previously held any federal or state office and then engaged in insurrection, rebellion or treason; this disqualification can be waived if such an individual gains the consent of two-thirds of both houses of Congress.

In addition, the Twelfth Amendment establishes that the Vice-President must meet all of the qualifications of being a President.

Although not a mandatory requirement, Federal campaign finance laws including the Federal Election Campaign Act state that a candidate who intends to receive contributions aggregating in excess of $5,000 or make expenditures aggregating in excess of $5,000, among others, must first file a Statement of Candidacy with the Federal Election Commission.[9] This has led presidential candidates, especially members from the two major political parties, to officially announce their intentions to run as early as the spring of the previous calendar year so they can start raising or spending the money needed for their nationwide campaign.[4] Potential candidates usually form exploratory committees even earlier to determining the feasibility of them actually running.

Nominating process

A 2008 Democratic caucus meeting in Iowa City, Iowa. The Iowa caucuses are traditionally the first major electoral event of presidential primaries and caucuses.

The modern nominating process of U.S. presidential elections currently consists of two major parts: a series of presidential primary elections and caucuses held in each state, and the presidential nominating conventions held by each political party. This process was never included in the United States Constitution, and thus evolved over time by the political parties to clear the field of candidates.

The primary elections are run by state and local governments, while the caucuses are organized directly by the political parties. Some states hold only primary elections, some hold only caucuses, and others use a combination of both. These primaries and caucuses are staggered generally between January and June before the federal election, with Iowa and New Hampshire traditionally holding the first presidential state caucus and primary, respectively.

Like the general election, presidential caucuses or primaries are indirect elections. The major political parties officially vote for their presidential candidate at their respective nominating conventions, usually all held in the summer before the federal election. Depending on each state's law and state's political party rules, when voters cast ballots for a candidate in a presidential caucus or primary, they may be voting to award delegates "bound" to vote for a candidate at the presidential nominating conventions, or they may simply be expressing an opinion that the state party is not bound to follow in selecting delegates to their respective national convention.

Unlike the general election, voters in the U.S. territories can also elect delegates to the national conventions. Furthermore, each political party can determine how many delegates to allocate to each state and territory. In 2012 for example, the Democratic and Republican party conventions each used two different formulas to allocate delegates. The Democrats based theirs on two main factors: (1) the proportion of votes each state gave to the Democratic candidate in the previous three presidential elections, and (2) the number of electoral votes each state had in the Electoral College.[10] In contrast, the Republicans assigned to each state 10 delegates, plus 3 delegates per congressional district.[11] Both parties then gave fixed amounts of delegates to each territory, and finally bonus delegates to states and territories that passed certain criteria.[10][11]

Along with delegates chosen during primaries and caucuses, state and U.S. territory delegations to both the Democratic and Republican party conventions also include "unpledged" delegates that have a vote. For Republicans, they consist of the three top party officials from each state and territory. Democrats have a more expansive group of unpledged delegates called "superdelegates", who are party leaders and elected officials.

Each party's presidential candidate also chooses a vice presidential nominee to run with him or her on the same ticket, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.

If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates (including both pledged and unpledged), then a "brokered convention" results. All pledged delegates are then "released" and are able to switch their allegiance to a different candidate. Thereafter, the nomination is decided through a process of alternating political horse trading, and additional rounds of re-votes.[12][13][14][15]

The popular vote on Election Day

A Texas voter about to mark a selection for president on a ballot, 2008 Election Day

Under the United States Constitution, the manner of choosing electors for the Electoral College is determined by each state's legislature. Although each state currently designates electors by popular vote, other methods are allowed. For instance, a number of states formerly chose presidential electors by a vote of the state legislature itself.

However, federal law does specify that all electors must be selected on the same day, which is "the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November," i.e. a Tuesday no earlier than November 2 and no later than November 8.[16] Today, the states and the District of Columbia each conduct their own popular elections on Election Day to help determine their respective slate of electors. Thus, the presidential election is really an amalgamation of separate and simultaneous state elections instead of a single national election run by the federal government.

Like any other election in the United States, the eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the Constitution and regulated at state level. The Constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color, sex or age for citizens eighteen years or older. Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility.

Generally, voters are required to vote on a ballot where they select the candidate of their choice. The presidential ballot is a vote "for the electors of a candidate" meaning that the voter is not voting for the candidate, but endorsing a slate of electors pledged to vote for a specific presidential and vice presidential candidate.

Many voting ballots allow a voter to “blanket vote” for all candidates in a particular political party or to select individual candidates on a line by line voting system. Which candidates appear on the voting ticket is determined through a legal process known as ballot access. Usually, the size of the candidate's political party and the results of the major nomination conventions determine who is pre-listed on the presidential ballot. Thus, the presidential election ticket will not list every candidate running for President, but only those who have secured a major party nomination or whose size of their political party warrants having been formally listed. Laws are in effect to have other candidates pre-listed on a ticket, provided that enough voters have endorsed the candidate, usually through a signature list.

The final way to be elected for president is to have one's name written in at the time of election as a write-in candidate. This is used for candidates who did not fulfill the legal requirements to be pre-listed on the voting ticket. It is also used by voters to express a distaste for the listed candidates, by writing in an alternative candidate for president such as Mickey Mouse or comedian Stephen Colbert (whose application was voted down by the South Carolina Democratic Party). In any event, a write-in candidate has never won an election for President of the United States.

Because U.S. territories are not represented in the Electoral College, U.S. citizens in those areas do not vote in the general election for President. Guam has held straw polls for president since the 1980 election to draw attention to this fact.[17]

Electoral college

Electoral College map showing the results of the 2012 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent Democrat president Barack Obama won the popular vote in 26 states and Washington, D.C. (denoted in blue) to capture 332 electoral votes. Republican challenger Mitt Romney won the popular vote in 24 states (denoted in red) to capture 206 electoral votes.

Most state laws establish a winner-take-all system, wherein the ticket that wins a plurality of votes wins all of that state's allocated electoral votes, and thus has their slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral College. Maine and Nebraska do not use this method, opting instead to give two electoral votes to the statewide winner and one electoral vote to the winner of each Congressional district.

Each state's winning slate of electors then meets at their respective state's capital on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December to cast their electoral votes on separate ballots for President and Vice President. Although Electoral College members can technically vote for anyone under the U.S. Constitution, 24 states have laws to punish faithless electors,[18] those who do not cast their electoral votes for the person whom they have pledged to elect.

In early January, the total Electoral College vote count is opened by the sitting Vice President, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate, and read aloud to a joint session of the incoming Congress, which was elected at the same time as the President.

If no candidate receives a majority of the electoral vote (currently at least 270), the President is determined by the rules outlined by the 12th Amendment. Specifically, the selection of President would then be decided by a ballot of the House of Representatives. For the purposes of electing the President, each state has only one vote. A ballot of the Senate is held to choose the Vice President. In this ballot, each senator has one vote. The House of Representatives has chosen the victor of the presidential race only twice, in 1800 and 1824; the Senate has chosen the victor of the vice-presidential race only once, in 1836.

If the President is not chosen by Inauguration Day, the Vice President-elect acts as President. If neither are chosen by then, Congress by law determines who shall act as President, pursuant to the 20th Amendment.

Unless there are faithless electors, disputes, or other controversies, the events in December and January mentioned above are largely a formality since the winner can be determined based on the state-by-state popular vote results. Between the general election and Inauguration Day, this apparent winner is referred to as the "President-elect" (unless it is a sitting President that has won re-election).

Election calendar

The typical periods of the presidential election process are as follows, with the dates corresponding to the 2016 general election:

  • Spring 2015 – Candidates announce their intentions to run, and (if necessary) file their Statement of Candidacy with the Federal Election Commission
  • August 2015 to March 2016 – Primary and caucus debates
  • February 1 to June 14, 2016 – Primaries and caucuses
  • April to August, 2016 – Nominating conventions (including those of the minor third parties)
  • September and October, 2016 – Presidential election debates
  • November 8, 2016 – Election Day
  • December, 2016 – Electors cast their electoral votes
  • Early January, 2017 – Congress counts and certifies the electoral votes
  • January 20, 2017 – Inauguration Day


Political experience

A number of trends in the political experience of presidents have been observed over the years. In recent decades, the presidential nominees of both major parties have been either incumbent presidents, sitting or former vice presidents, sitting or former U.S. Senators, or sitting or former state Governors. The last major nominee from either party who had not previously served in such an office was General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who won the Republican nomination and ultimately the presidency in the 1952 election. Chester A. Arthur had held no federal or statewide office, before becoming Vice President and then President following the assassination of President James A. Garfield in 1881.

The U.S. Secretary of State used to be a stepping-stone to the White House, with five of the six Presidents who served between 1801 and 1841 previously holding that office. However, since 1841, only one Secretary of State has gone on to be President (James Buchanan, who served between 1857 and 1861).

Fourteen Presidents have previously served as Vice President. However, only John Adams (1796), Thomas Jefferson (1800), Martin Van Buren (1836), Richard Nixon (1968) and George H. W. Bush (1988) began their first term after winning an election. Among the remaining nine who began their first term as President according to the presidential line of succession after their respective predecessor died or resigned from office, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon B. Johnson were reelected. John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, and Gerald Ford served as President but never won any presidential election. Ford had been appointed to the Vice Presidency through the processes of the Twenty-fifth Amendment and lost the 1976 presidential election, making him the only President to have never been elected to national office.

In the 2008 election, the nominees of both major parties, Barack Obama and John McCain, were sitting U.S. Senators. Before 2008, fifteen presidents previously served in the Senate, including four of the five Presidents who served between 1945 and 1974. However, only two out of those fifteen were sitting U.S. Senators at the time they were elected president (Warren G. Harding in 1920 and John F. Kennedy in 1960). Major-party candidate Senators Andrew Jackson (1824), Lewis Cass (1848), Stephen Douglas (1860), Barry Goldwater (1964), George McGovern (1972), and John Kerry (2004) all lost their elections. Only one sitting member of the House of Representatives has been elected president (James A. Garfield in 1880), although eighteen presidents have been former members of the House.

Despite Obama's tenure, contemporary electoral success has clearly favored state governors. Of the last six presidents, four (Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush) have been governors of a state. Geographically, these presidents were from either very large states (California, Texas) or from a state south of the Mason–Dixon line and east of Texas (Georgia, Arkansas). In all, sixteen presidents have been former governors, including seven who were in office as governor at the time of their election to the presidency. Other major-party candidates who were also state governors include Michael Dukakis (1988), and Mitt Romney (2012).

After leaving office, one President, William Howard Taft, served as Chief Justice of the United States. Only two Presidents, John Quincy Adams (serving in the House) and Andrew Johnson (serving in the Senate), have served in Congress after being President. John Quincy Adams however is the only former President to be elected to federal office; when Andrew Johnson served as a Senator, state legislatures appointed the Senators.

Technology and media

Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 "Daisy" advertisement

Advances in technology and media have also affected presidential campaigns. The invention of both radio and television have given way to the reliance of national political advertisements across those methods of communication. National advertisements such as Lyndon B. Johnson's 1964 commercial "Daisy", Ronald Reagan's 1984 commercial "Morning in America", and George H. W. Bush's 1988 commercial "Revolving Door" became major factors in those respective elections. In 1992, George H. W. Bush's promise of "Read my lips: no new taxes" was extensively used in the commercials of Bill Clinton and Bush's other opponents with significant effect during the campaign.

Since the development of the Internet in the mid-90s, Internet activism has also become an invaluable component of presidential campaigns, especially since 2000. The internet was first used in the 1996 presidential elections, but primarily as a brochure for the candidate online.[19] It was only used by a few candidates and there is no evidence of any major effect on the outcomes of that election cycle.[19]

In 2000, both candidates (George W. Bush and Al Gore) created, maintained and updated their campaign website. But it was not until the 2004 presidential election cycle was the potential value of the internet seen. By the summer of 2003, ten people competing in the 2004 presidential election had developed campaign websites.[20] Howard Dean’s campaign website from that year was considered a model for all future campaign websites. His website played a significant role in his overall campaign strategy.[21] It allowed his supporters to read about his campaign platform and provide feedback, donate, get involved with the campaign, and connect with other supporters.[22] A Gallup poll from January 2004 revealed that 49 percent of Americans have used the internet to get information about candidates, and 28 percent said that they use the internet to get this information frequently.[23]

In 2008, the internet became a grassroots and a voice of the people tool-a way for the users to connect with each other and with the campaign, like Dean’s website had done in 2004. All of the major candidates had a website and utilized social networking like Facebook and MySpace. The popularity of a candidate could be measured by the number of ‘friends’ on these sites as well as on websites like Hitwise, which listed the number of hits all of the presidential candidate’s websites had each week.

Internet channels such as YouTube were used by candidates to share speeches and ads for free. This also served as a forum for users to attack other candidates by uploading videos of gaffes.[23]

A study done by the Pew Internet & American Life Project in conjunction with Princeton Survey Research Associates in November 2010 shows that 54 percent of adults in the United States used the internet to get information about the 2010 midterm elections and about specific candidates. This represents 73 percent of adult internet users. The study also showed that 22 percent of adult internet users used social network sites or Twitter to get information about and discuss the elections and 26 percent of all adults used cell phones to learn about or participate in campaigns.[24]

E-campaigning as it has come to be called, is subject to very little regulation. On March 26, 2006, the Federal Election Commission voted unanimously to "not regulate political communication on the Internet, including emails, blogs and the creating of Web sites"[25] This decision made only paid political ads placed on websites subject to campaign finance limitations.[26] A comment was made about this decision by Roger Alan Stone of Advocacy Inc. that explain this loophole in the context of a political campaign, "A wealthy individual could purchase all of the e-mail addresses for registered voters in a congressional district . . . produce an Internet video ad, and e-mail it along with a link to the campaign contribution page..Not only would this activity not count against any contribution limits or independent expenditure requirements; it would never even need to be reported"[25]


2012 Republican primaries and caucuses calendar.
2012 swing states, where the margin of victory was 8 percentage points or less.
  States won by Republican Mitt Romney by 0–4 percentage points
  States won by Democrat Barack Obama by 0–4 percentage points
  States won by Democrat Barack Obama by 4–8 percentage points

Today, the presidential election process remains controversial, with critics arguing that it is inherently undemocratic, and discourages voter participation and turnout in many areas of the country. Because of the staggered nature of the primary season, voters in Iowa, New Hampshire and other small states which traditionally hold their primaries and caucuses first in January usually have a major impact on the races. Campaign activity, media attention, and voter participation are usually higher in these states, as the candidates attempt to build momentum and generate a bandwagon effect in these early primaries. Conversely, voters in California and other large states which traditionally hold their primaries last in June usually end up having no say in who the presidential candidates will be. The races are usually over by then, and thus the campaigns, the media, and voters have little incentive to participate in these late primaries. As a result, more states vie for earlier primaries to claim a greater influence in the process. However, compressing the primary calendar in this way limits the ability of lesser-known candidates to effectively corral resources and raise their visibility among voters, especially when competing with better-known candidates who have more financial resources and the institutional backing of their party's establishment. Primary and caucus reform proposals include a National Primary held on a single day; or the Interregional Primary Plan, where states would be grouped into six regions, and each of the regions would rotate every election on who would hold their primaries first.

With the primary races usually over before June, the political conventions have mostly become scripted, ceremonial affairs. As the drama has left the conventions, and complaints grown that they were scripted and dull pep rallies, public interest and viewership has fallen off. After formerly offering gavel-to-gavel coverage of the major party conventions in the mid-20th Century, the Big Three television networks now only devote approximately three hours of coverage (one hour per night).

Critics also argue that the Electoral College is archaic and inherently undemocratic. With all but two states (the exceptions being Maine and Nebraska) using a winner-take-all system, both the Democratic and the Republican candidates are all but certain to win all the electoral votes from those states whose residents predominantly vote for the Democratic Party or the Republican Party, respectively. This encourages presidential candidates to focus exponentially more time, money, and energy campaigning in a few so-called "swing states", states in which no single candidate or party has overwhelming support. Such swing states like Ohio are inundated with campaign visits, saturation television advertising, get-out-the-vote efforts by party organizers, and debates. Meanwhile, candidates and political parties have no incentive to mount nationwide campaign efforts, or work to increase voter turnout, in predominately Democratic Party "safe states" like California or predominately Republican Party "safe states" like Texas. In practice, the winner-take-all system also both reinforces the country's two-party system and decreases the importance of third and minor political parties.[27] Furthermore, a candidate can win the electoral vote without securing the greatest amount of the national popular vote, such as during the 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000 elections. In theory, it is possible to secure the necessary 270 electoral votes from just the top 11 populous states and then ignore the rest of the country.

Constitutional amendments, such as the Every Vote Counts Amendment, have been proposed seeking to replace the Electoral College with a direct popular vote, which proponents argue would increase turnout and participation. Other proposed reforms include the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, an interstate compact without Congressional authorization, whereby individual participating states agree to allocate their electors based on the winner of the national popular vote, instead of voting their respective statewide results. Another proposal is for every state to simply adopt the District system used by Maine and Nebraska: give two electoral votes to the statewide winner and one electoral vote to the winner of each Congressional district. The Automatic Plan would replace the Electors with an automatic tallying of votes to eliminate the faithless elector affecting the outcome of the election. The Proportional Plan, often compared to the District Plan, would distribute electoral votes in each state in proportion to the popular vote, introducing third party effects in election outcomes. The House Plan would require a constitutional amendment to allocate electors based on the House apportionment alone to lessen small state advantage. Direct election plans and bonus plans have in common a higher valuation on the popular vote for president.[28]

Electoral college results

The following is a table of electoral college results:

For simplicity, candidates listed are only those that received at least 1.0% of the total popular vote or more than one electoral vote for elections including and after 1824, or greater than 5 electoral votes for elections including and before 1820
Political party of each candidate is indicated in parentheses
* Winner received less than an absolute majority of the popular vote.
† Losing candidate received a plurality of the popular vote.
‡ Losing candidate received an absolute majority of the popular vote.
** As the second place winner, was elected Vice President as per the law in effect prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment.
Order Election year Winner Other major candidates[29]
1st 1788–1789 George Washington (no party) – 69 electoral votes John Adams** (no party) – 34 electoral votes
John Jay (no party) – 9
Robert H. Harrison (no party) – 6
John Rutledge (no party) – 6
2nd 1792 George Washington (no party) – 132 John Adams** (Federalist) – 77
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 50
3rd 1796 John Adams (Federalist) – 71 Thomas Jefferson** (Democratic-Republican) – 68
Thomas Pinckney (Federalist) – 59
Aaron Burr (Democratic-Republican) – 30
Samuel Adams (Democratic-Republican) – 15
Oliver Ellsworth (Federalist) – 11
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 7
4th 1800 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) – 73[30] Aaron Burr** (Democratic-Republican) – 73[30]
John Adams (Federalist) – 65
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 64
5th 1804 Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) – 162 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 14
6th 1808 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) – 122 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist) – 47
George Clinton (Democratic-Republican) – 6
James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 0
7th 1812 James Madison (Democratic-Republican) – 128 DeWitt Clinton (Federalist) – 89
8th 1816 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 183 Rufus King (Federalist) – 34
9th 1820 James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) – 228/231 [31] John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican) – 1
10th 1824*† John Quincy Adams* (Democratic-Republican) – 84[32] Andrew Jackson† (Democratic-Republican) – 99[32]
William H. Crawford (Democratic-Republican) – 41
Henry Clay (Democratic-Republican) – 37
11th 1828 Andrew Jackson (Democrat) – 178 John Quincy Adams (National Republican) – 83
12th 1832 Andrew Jackson (Democrat) – 219 Henry Clay (National Republican) – 49
John Floyd (Nullifier) – 11
William Wirt (Anti-Masonic) – 7
13th 1836 Martin Van Buren (Democrat) – 170 William Henry Harrison (Whig) – 73
Hugh Lawson White (Whig) – 26
Daniel Webster (Whig) – 14
Willie Person Mangum (Whig) – 11
14th 1840 William Henry Harrison (Whig) – 234 Martin Van Buren (Democrat) – 60
15th 1844* James K. Polk* (Democrat) – 170 Henry Clay (Whig) – 105
James G. Birney (Liberty) – 0
16th 1848* Zachary Taylor (Whig) – 163 Lewis Cass (Democrat) – 127
Martin Van Buren (Free Soil) – 0
17th 1852 Franklin Pierce (Democrat) – 254 Winfield Scott (Whig) – 42
John P. Hale (Free Soil) – 0
18th 1856* James Buchanan* (Democrat) – 174 John C. Frémont (Republican) – 114
Millard Fillmore (American Party/Whig) – 8
19th 1860* Abraham Lincoln* (Republican) – 180 John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democrat) – 72
John Bell (Constitutional Union) – 39
Stephen A. Douglas (Northern Democrat) – 12
20th 1864[33] Abraham Lincoln (National Union) – 212 George B. McClellan (Democrat) – 21
21st 1868 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) – 214 Horatio Seymour (Democrat) – 80
22nd 1872 Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) – 286 Horace Greeley (Democrat/Liberal Republican) – 0[34]
Thomas A. Hendricks (Democrat) – 42
B. Gratz Brown (Democrat/Liberal Republican) – 18
Charles J. Jenkins (Democrat) – 2
23rd 1876*‡ Rutherford B. Hayes* (Republican) – 185 Samuel J. Tilden‡ (Democrat) – 184
24th 1880* James A. Garfield* (Republican) – 214 Winfield Scott Hancock (Democrat) – 155
James Weaver (Greenback) – 0
25th 1884* Grover Cleveland* (Democrat) – 219 James G. Blaine (Republican) – 182
John St. John (Prohibition) – 0
Benjamin Franklin Butler (Greenback) – 0
26th 1888*† Benjamin Harrison* (Republican) – 233 Grover Cleveland† (Democrat) – 168
Clinton B. Fisk (Prohibition) – 0
Alson Streeter (Union Labor) – 0
27th 1892* Grover Cleveland* (Democrat) – 277 Benjamin Harrison (Republican) – 145
James Weaver (Populist) – 22
John Bidwell (Prohibition) – 0
28th 1896 William McKinley (Republican) – 271 William Jennings Bryan (Democrat/Populist) – 176
29th 1900 William McKinley (Republican) – 292 William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) – 155
John Woolley (Prohibition) – 0
30th 1904 Theodore Roosevelt (Republican) – 336 Alton B. Parker (Democrat) – 140
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Silas C. Swallow (Prohibition) – 0
31st 1908 William Howard Taft (Republican) – 321 William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) – 162
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Eugene W. Chafin (Prohibition) – 0
32nd 1912* Woodrow Wilson* (Democrat) – 435 Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive) – 88
William Howard Taft (Republican) – 8
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
Eugene W. Chafin (Prohibition) – 0
33rd 1916* Woodrow Wilson* (Democrat) – 277 Charles Evans Hughes (Republican) – 254
Allan L. Benson (Socialist) – 0
James Hanly (Prohibition) – 0
34th 1920 Warren G. Harding (Republican) – 404 James M. Cox (Democrat) – 127
Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) – 0
35th 1924 Calvin Coolidge (Republican) – 382 John W. Davis (Democrat) – 136
Robert M. La Follette, Sr. (Progressive) – 13
36th 1928 Herbert Hoover (Republican) – 444 Al Smith (Democrat) – 87
37th 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) – 472 Herbert Hoover (Republican) – 59
Norman Thomas (Socialist) – 0
38th 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) – 523 Alf Landon (Republican) – 8
William Lemke (Union) – 0
39th 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) – 449 Wendell Willkie (Republican) – 82
40th 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) – 432 Thomas E. Dewey (Republican) – 99
41st 1948* Harry S. Truman* (Democrat) – 303 Thomas E. Dewey (Republican) – 189
Strom Thurmond (States' Rights Democrat) – 39
Henry A. Wallace (Progressive/Labor) – 0
42nd 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) – 442 Adlai Stevenson (Democrat) – 89
43rd 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower (Republican) – 457 Adlai Stevenson (Democrat) – 73
44th 1960* John F. Kennedy* (Democrat) – 303 Richard Nixon (Republican) – 219
Harry F. Byrd (Democrat) – 15[35]
45th 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat) – 486 Barry Goldwater (Republican) – 52
46th 1968* Richard Nixon* (Republican) – 301 Hubert Humphrey (Democrat) – 191
George Wallace (American Independent) – 46
47th 1972 Richard Nixon (Republican) – 520 George McGovern (Democrat) – 17
John G. Schmitz (American) – 0
John Hospers (Libertarian) – 1
48th 1976 Jimmy Carter (Democrat) – 297 Gerald Ford (Republican) – 240
49th 1980 Ronald Reagan (Republican) – 489 Jimmy Carter (Democrat) – 49
John B. Anderson (no party) – 0
Ed Clark (Libertarian) – 0
50th 1984 Ronald Reagan (Republican) – 525 Walter Mondale (Democrat) – 13
51st 1988 George H. W. Bush (Republican) – 426 Michael Dukakis (Democrat) – 111
52nd 1992* Bill Clinton* (Democrat) – 370 George H. W. Bush (Republican) – 168
Ross Perot (no party) – 0
53rd 1996* Bill Clinton* (Democrat) – 379 Bob Dole (Republican) – 159
Ross Perot (Reform) – 0
54th 2000*† George W. Bush* (Republican) – 271 Al Gore† (Democrat) – 266
Ralph Nader (Green) – 0
55th 2004 George W. Bush (Republican) – 286 John Kerry (Democrat) – 251
56th 2008 Barack Obama (Democrat) – 365 John McCain (Republican) – 173
57th 2012 Barack Obama (Democrat) – 332 Mitt Romney (Republican) – 206

Voter turnout

Voter turnout in the 2004 and 2008 elections showed a noticeable increase over the turnout in 1996 and 2000. Prior to 2004, voter turnout in presidential elections had been decreasing while voter registration, measured in terms of voting age population (VAP) by the U.S. Census, has been increasing. The VAP figure, however, includes persons ineligible to vote — mainly non-citizens and ineligible felons — and excludes overseas eligible voters. Opinion is mixed on whether this decline was due to voter apathy [1] [36][37][38] or an increase in ineligible voters on the rolls.[39] The difference between these two measures are illustrated by analysis of turnout in the 2004 and 2008 elections. Voter turnout from the 2004 and 2008 election was "not statistically different," based on the voting age population used by a November 2008 U.S. Census survey of 50,000 households [2]. If expressed in terms of vote eligible population (VEP), the 2008 national turnout rate was 61.7% from 131.3 million ballots cast for president, an increase of over 1.6 percentage points over the 60.1% turnout rate of 2004, and the highest since 1968.[40]

Financial disclosures

Prior to 1967, many presidential candidates disclosed assets, stock holdings, and other information which might affect the public trust.[41] In that year, Republican candidate George W. Romney went a step further and released his tax returns for the previous twelve years.[41] Since then, many presidential candidates – including all major-party nominees since 1980 – have released some of their returns,[42] although few of the major party nominees have equaled or exceeded George Romney's twelve.[43][44]

Presidential coattails

Presidential elections are held on the same date as those for all the seats in the United States House of Representatives, the full terms for 33 or 34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate, the governorships in several U.S. states, as well as many state and local elections. Presidential candidates tend to bring out supporters who then vote for their party's candidates for those other offices. Members of the U.S. Senate or House of Representatives are also more likely to be voted for on a year of the presidential election than a midterm.[45] In effect, these other candidates are said to ride on their coattails.

Comparison with other U.S. general elections

Basic rotation of U.S. general elections (fixed-terms only[1])
Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Type Presidential Off-yeara Midterm Off-yearb Presidential
President Yes No Yes
Senate Class I (33 seats) No Class II (33 seats) No Class III (34 seats)
House All 435 seats[2] No All 435 seats[3] No All 435 seats[2]
Gubernatorial 11 states
2 states
36 states[4]
3 states
11 states
Other state and local offices Varies from state-to-state, county-to-county, city-to-city, community-to-community, etc.
1 This table does not include special elections, which may be held to fill political offices that have become vacant between the regularly scheduled elections.
2 As well as all six non-voting delegates of the U.S. House.
3 As well as five non-voting delegates of the U.S. House. The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico instead serves a four-year term that coincides with the presidential term.
4 Both the Governors of New Hampshire and Vermont are each elected to two-year terms. The other 48 state governors serve four-year terms.

See also

Statistical forecasts


  1. 3 U.S.C. § 1
  2. Caldwell, Leigh Ann (November 4, 2015). "A Viewer's Guide to the Next Year in Presidential Politics". NBC News. Retrieved November 8, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  6. Out of the 13 original states during the 1789 election, 6 states chose electors by some form of popular vote, 4 states chose electors by a different method, North Carolina and Rhode Island were ineligible to participate since they had not yet ratified the U.S. Constitution, and New York failed to appoint their allotment of electors in time because of a deadlock in their state legislature.
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  29. A “major candidate” is defined as a candidate receiving at least 1.0% of the total popular vote or more than one electoral vote for elections including and after 1824, or greater than 5 electoral votes for elections including and before 1820.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Both Burr and Jefferson received the same number of electoral votes. The tie was broken by the House of Representatives, sparking a series of events that led to the passing of the Twelfth Amendment
  31. There was a dispute as to whether Missouri's electoral votes in 1820 were valid, because of the timing of its assumption of statehood. The first figure excludes Missouri's votes and the second figure includes them.
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  33. Because of the American Civil War, all of the states in rebellion did not participate
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  35. Byrd was not directly on the 1960 ballot. Instead, his electoral votes came from several unpledged electors and a faithless elector. The claim that Kennedy received a plurality of the votes can only be sustained if those votes cast for unpledged Democratic electors are tabulated as Kennedy's, even if they did not vote for him. If these votes are excluded from Kennedy's total, Nixon had the national popular-vote plurality.
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  45. "Government By the People; national, state, and local version" Prentice Hall publishers, by Cronin Magleby O'Brien Light

External links

Statistical forecasts