Portal:Crusades

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

THE CRUSADES PORTAL

Template:/box-header

Crusader siege of Antioch

The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal threats. Crusades were fought against Muslims, pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Jews, and political enemies of the popes. Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins.

The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted in territories outside the Levant usually against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons. Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade.

The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the Crusaders. Template:/box-footer

Selected article

Siege of Lisbon
The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the only Christian victories of the Second Crusade and is seen as a pivotal battle of the wider Reconquista.

The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. In the spring of 1147, the Pope authorized the crusade in the Iberian peninsula. He also authorized Alfonso VII of León to equate his campaigns against the Moors with the rest of the Second Crusade. In May 1147, the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England for the Holy Land. Bad weather forced the ships to stop on the Portuguese coast, at the northern city of Porto on 16 June 1147. There they were convinced to meet with Count Afonso of Portugal.

The crusaders agreed to help the Count attack Lisbon, with a solemn agreement that offered to the crusaders the pillage of the city's goods and the ransom money for expected prisoners. The siege began on 1 July. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender on 24 October, primarily due to hunger within the city. Most of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, but some of the crusaders set sail and continued to the Holy Land. Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.

Selected picture

The Night Attack
Credit: Cmmmm

The Night Attack (Romanian: Atacul de noapte) was a skirmish fought between forces of Vlad III the Impaler (Ţepeş) of Wallachia and Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire on 17 June 1462. The conflict initially started with Ţepeş's refusal to pay tribute to the Porte and intensified when Ţepeş invaded Bulgaria and impaled over 23,000 Turks and Bulgarians. Mehmed then raised a great army with the objective to conquer Wallachia and annex it to his empire. The two leaders fought a series of skirmishes, the most notable one being the Night Attack where Ţepeş attacked the Turkish camp in the night in an attempt to kill Mehmed. The assassination attempt failed and Mehmed marched to the Wallachian capital of Târgovişte, where he discovered another 20,000 impaled Turks and Bulgarians. Demoralised, the Sultan and his troops retreated.

Did you know...

Baldwin of Boulogne receiving the hommage of the Armenians.

Selected biography

James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Catalan supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He made Catalan the official language of his domains,[2] sponsored Catalan literature and even wrote a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

Template:/box-header Template:/Categories Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header

Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg

Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header

The Crusades

Background: PilgrimageHoly LandChurch of the Holy SepulchreGreat German Pilgrimage of 1064–65Theology of sacred violenceBattle of ManzikertCouncil of PiacenzaCouncil of ClermontJihad

Realms and dynasties: Great Seljuq EmpireFatimid CaliphateKingdom of JerusalemPrincipality of AntiochCounty of TripoliCounty of EdessaKingdom of CyprusArmenian Kingdom of CiliciaVassals of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of CyprusAyyubid dynastyAlmohad CaliphateLatin EmpireMonastic state of the Teutonic KnightsMamluksMongol EmpireHouse of LusignanDuchy of AthensDuchy of the ArchipelagoRise of the Ottoman EmpireHoly LeagueLatin Patriarchate of JerusalemArchdiocese of TyreArchdiocese of NazarethArchdiocese of CaesareaArchdiocese of PetraLatin Patriarchate of AntiochLatin Patriarchate of Constantinople

Cities and castles: JerusalemCitadel of Salah Ed-DinConstantinopleAcreKrak des ChevaliersFamagusta

Campaigns and battles: First CrusadeSiege of JerusalemSeljuk–Crusader WarReconquistaSecond CrusadeSiege of DamascusNorthern CrusadesBattle of HattinThird CrusadeBattle of ArsufLivonian CrusadeGerman CrusadeCrusades in ItalyFourth CrusadeAlbigensian CrusadeBattle of Las Navas de TolosaChildren's CrusadeFifth CrusadeSiege of DamiettaPrussian CrusadeSixth CrusadeSeventh CrusadeBattle of Al MansurahShepherds' CrusadeEighth CrusadeNinth CrusadeAragonese CrusadeAlexandrian CrusadeCrusades of the Western SchismBattle of NicopolisHussite WarsCrusade of VarnaFall of ConstantinopleSiege of BelgradeOttoman invasion of OtrantoFall of RhodesOttoman–Venetian WarsOttoman–Habsburg warsBattle of MohácsBattle of LepantoSpanish ArmadaBattle of Vienna

People: al-Hakim bi-Amr AllahAlexios I KomnenosPope Urban IIGodfrey of BouillonBernard of ClairvauxBaldwin of ExeterSaladinRichard I of EnglandLouis IX of FranceGuy of LusignanJames I of AragonMarino Sanuto the ElderPope Clement VITimurJohn HunyadiMuhammad XII of GranadaThomas Stukleyal-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din

Military orders: Knights TemplarHistory of the Knights TemplarKnights HospitallerMilitary orders of the ReconquistaTeutonic Knights

Legacy: History of the Jews and the CrusadesCriticism of the CrusadesTrade and the CrusadesMedieval Christian missions to AsiaSovereign Military Order of Malta Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header

Attention needed
...to referencing and citation  • ...to coverage and accuracy  • ...to structure  • ...to grammar  • ...to supporting materials 
Cleanup needed  
Add an article here!
Requested articles 
Add an article here!
Expansion needed  
Add an article here!
Images needed  
Add an article here!
Merging needed  
Add an article here!
Citations needed  
First CrusadeSecond Crusade
Translation needed 
Add an article here!
Tagging needed  
Category:Crusades

In general:

  • Tag articles.
  • Recruit interested editors.
  • Collect categories, resource links, and templates.
  • Expand the open task listing above.
  • Create new articles where none exist. Report new articles of adequate length at Template talk:Did you know.
  • Ensure accuracy of entries in Wikipedia lists and timelines. Fact check descriptions of Middle Ages military history within other types of articles.
  • Expand and improve stubs.
  • Raise existing articles to good article and featured article status.
  • Recognize good work by awarding barnstars and good article tags where appropriate.
  • Participate in active peer reviews:
  • Participate in active Article Creation and Improvement Drive reviews:

Specific:

# Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
# Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani
# Baha ad-Din
# Children's Crusade

Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header

P religion world.svg
Cruzeiro em Belém-PB.jpg
Allah-green.svg
HistoriansHistoryOfTheWorld.png
Bluetank.png
Grandes chroniques Roland.jpg
Palaiologos-Dynasty-Eagle.svg
Religion Christianity Islam History War Middle Ages Byzantine Empire

Template:/box-footer

Template:/box-header

Crusades at Wiktionary
Definitions
Crusades at Wikinews
News
Crusades at Wikiquote
Quotations
Crusades at Wikibooks
Manuals & Texts
Crusades at Wikisource
Texts
Crusades at Wikicommons
Images

Template:/box-footer

  1. Chaytor, 96.
  2. Ibid.