- War and the military
Military of Ancient Rome
- United Kingdom (British Army
- Royal Air Force
- Royal Navy)
- United States ( Army
- Marine Corps
- Air Force
- Coast Guard) … Military history of Africa
- the Ottoman Empire …… American Civil War
- American Revolutionary War
- Cold War
- Italian Wars
- Napoleonic Wars
- War of 1812
- World War I
- World War II …… Battleships
- Biological warfare
- Weapons of mass destruction …… NATO
THE CRUSADES PORTAL
The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal threats. Crusades were fought against Muslims, pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Jews, and political enemies of the popes. Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins.
The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted in territories outside the Levant usually against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons. Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade.
The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the Crusaders. Template:/box-footer
Background: Pilgrimage • Holy Land • Church of the Holy Sepulchre • Great German Pilgrimage of 1064–65 • Theology of sacred violence • Battle of Manzikert • Council of Piacenza • Council of Clermont • Jihad
Realms and dynasties: Great Seljuq Empire • Fatimid Caliphate • Kingdom of Jerusalem • Principality of Antioch • County of Tripoli • County of Edessa • Kingdom of Cyprus • Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia • Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem • Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem • Officers of the Kingdom of Cyprus • Ayyubid dynasty • Almohad Caliphate • Latin Empire • Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights • Mamluks • Mongol Empire • House of Lusignan • Duchy of Athens • Duchy of the Archipelago • Rise of the Ottoman Empire • Holy League • Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem • Archdiocese of Tyre • Archdiocese of Nazareth • Archdiocese of Caesarea • Archdiocese of Petra • Latin Patriarchate of Antioch • Latin Patriarchate of Constantinople
Campaigns and battles: First Crusade • Siege of Jerusalem • Seljuk–Crusader War • Reconquista • Second Crusade • Siege of Damascus • Northern Crusades • Battle of Hattin • Third Crusade • Battle of Arsuf • Livonian Crusade • German Crusade • Crusades in Italy • Fourth Crusade • Albigensian Crusade • Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa • Children's Crusade • Fifth Crusade • Siege of Damietta • Prussian Crusade • Sixth Crusade • Seventh Crusade • Battle of Al Mansurah • Shepherds' Crusade • Eighth Crusade • Ninth Crusade • Aragonese Crusade • Alexandrian Crusade • Crusades of the Western Schism • Battle of Nicopolis • Hussite Wars • Crusade of Varna • Fall of Constantinople • Siege of Belgrade • Ottoman invasion of Otranto • Fall of Rhodes • Ottoman–Venetian Wars • Ottoman–Habsburg wars • Battle of Mohács • Battle of Lepanto • Spanish Armada • Battle of Vienna
People: al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah • Alexios I Komnenos • Pope Urban II • Godfrey of Bouillon • Bernard of Clairvaux • Baldwin of Exeter • Saladin • Richard I of England • Louis IX of France • Guy of Lusignan •James I of Aragon • Marino Sanuto the Elder • Pope Clement VI • Timur • John Hunyadi • Muhammad XII of Granada • Thomas Stukley • al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
- Lynn Hunt describes the battle as a "major turning point in the reconquista..." See Lynn Hunt, R. Po-chia Hsia, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, and Bonnie Smith, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures: A Concise History: Volume I: To 1740, Second Edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin's 2007), 391.
- Based on the fact that he claimed to be seventy-seven when negotiating a treaty with James the Conqueror in February 1234.