Portal:Crusades

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THE CRUSADES PORTAL

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Crusader siege of Antioch

The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal threats. Crusades were fought against Muslims, pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Jews, and political enemies of the popes. Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins.

The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were originally launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia. The term is also used to describe contemporaneous and subsequent campaigns conducted in territories outside the Levant usually against pagans, heretics, and peoples under the ban of excommunication for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons. Rivalries among both Christian and Muslim powers led also to alliances between religious factions against their opponents, such as the Christian alliance with the Sultanate of Rum during the Fifth Crusade.

The Crusades had far-reaching political, economic, and social impacts, some of which have lasted into contemporary times. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim, such as the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the sack of Christian Constantinople and the partition of the Byzantine Empire between Venice and the Crusaders. Template:/box-footer

Selected article

Olive Grove
The Battle of the Olive Grove of Kountouras took place in the spring of 1205, in Messenia, Peloponnese, between the Frankish Crusaders and the local Greeks, resulting in a victory of the Frankish knights and the collapse of the local resistance.[1]

In 1204, Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine Empire was taken by the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade and the Republic of Venice. This led to the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Latin Empire.

Advancing into Greece, the Crusaders confronted the magnate Leo Sgouros, who withdrew to the fortresses of Nafplion and Acrocorinth. While the Crusaders besieged him there, a force of between 500-700 knights under the command of William of Champlitte and Geoffrey I of Villehardouin advanced into the western and southwestern Peloponnese. The locals submitted themselves mostly without resistance, until, in the Olive Grove of Kountouras in Messenia, the Crusaders confronted an army of around 5,000 Peloponnesian Greeks under the command of a certain Michael (sometimes identified with Michael I Komnenos Doukas). In the ensuing battle, the Crusaders emerged victorious.

The battle was decisive for the conquest of the Peloponnese by the Franks. Except for the continuing resistance of Nafplion and Acrocorinth for a few more years in the northwest, and the region of Laconia with Monemvasia, which was not subdued until the 1240s, the Franks faced no other obstacle towards consolidating their rule over the Peloponnese. William of Champlitte was able to build upon his victories by forming the Principality of Achaia, a Frankish state comprising most of the Peloponnese.

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[[Image:|center|420px|Battle of Diu (1509)]]

Credit: Cmmmm

The Battle of Diu sometimes referred as the Second Battle of Chaul was a naval battle fought on February 3, 1509 in the Arabian Sea, near the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, the Zamorin of Calicut and the Sultan of Gujarat, with technical naval support from the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik).[1] The Portuguese victory was critical for its strategy of control of the Indian Ocean, setting its trade dominance for almost a century, and thus greatly assisted the growth of the Portuguese Empire. It marks also the beginning of the European colonial dominance in Asia. It also marks the spillover of the Christian-Islamic power struggle, in Europe and the Middle East, into the Indian Ocean which was the dominant region of international trade at that time.

After this battle, the Portuguese rapidly captured key ports and coastal areas in the Indian Ocean like Goa, Ceylon, Malacca and Ormuz. This allowed them to circumvent the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians, and by routing the trade down the Cape of Good Hope, they simultaneously crippled the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the Gujarat Sultanate. The Portuguese sea monopoly lasted until it was taken during the Dutch-Portuguese War, the British East India Company and the Battle of Swally in 1612.

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caption=Pope Eugene III

Selected biography

John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi (Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu de Hunedoara, Slovak: Ján Huňady, Croatian: Сибињанин Јанко / Sibinjanin Janko; c. 1387[2] – 11 August 1456), nicknamed The White Knight[3][4][5] or White Knight of Hungary[6][7]) depending on sources</ref> was a Hungarian general (1444–46) and Regent-Governor (1446–53) of the Kingdom of Hungary.[8].

He is widely celebrated in Hungarian history as its most prominent, successful and powerful generalissimo who promoted a revision of dated military doctrine, as such a recognizably outstanding and iconic military opponent of the Ottoman Empire; in a sweeping scope of European military history was undoubtedly the pre-eminent strategist and tactician of the 15th century in Christendom.[8] He was also a Voivode of Transylvania (1441–46), the patriarch of the Hunyadi family, and father of the most renowned king in Hungarian history, King Matthias Corvinus.

Hunyadi's unique personal martial genius, prowess and wherewithal to prosecute preventive and very muscular aggressive crusading warfare policies that weld together many Christian nationalities against the onslaught of the vastly numerically superior Ottoman Moslem forces achieved a state of integrity, stalemate and détente for the Hungarian Kingdom and the many European states that lay to her periphery.

John Hunyadi's aim to re-organize the military ancien régime constituents of Hungary from strictly a feudal-based aristocratic levy into an efficient, professional, formidable standing army would bring reform to European military components everywhere in a 'post-Roman' European war-making society that his successor and son, King Matthias Corvinus would bring to its ultimate culmination with its ruthless Black Army of Hungary.

John Hunyadi is often considered the bellwether of the European "post-Roman" professional "standing army". Hunyadi is mostly renowned as one of the greatest medieval field commanders of all time, his brilliant and prodigous overthrow of Mehmed II at the Siege of Belgrade in 1456 against overpowering odds is regarded as a seminal piece of European military history as "Having decided the fate of Christendom", and is as decisive a macro-significant event in European historiography as the 732 Battle of Tours and the Battle of Vienna in 1683.

To this very day worldwide, every Catholic and older Protestant churches tolling of church bells at noon means a commemoration of John Hunyadi's very historic victory over the Ottomans in 1456.

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The Crusades

Background: PilgrimageHoly LandChurch of the Holy SepulchreGreat German Pilgrimage of 1064–65Theology of sacred violenceBattle of ManzikertCouncil of PiacenzaCouncil of ClermontJihad

Realms and dynasties: Great Seljuq EmpireFatimid CaliphateKingdom of JerusalemPrincipality of AntiochCounty of TripoliCounty of EdessaKingdom of CyprusArmenian Kingdom of CiliciaVassals of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of JerusalemOfficers of the Kingdom of CyprusAyyubid dynastyAlmohad CaliphateLatin EmpireMonastic state of the Teutonic KnightsMamluksMongol EmpireHouse of LusignanDuchy of AthensDuchy of the ArchipelagoRise of the Ottoman EmpireHoly LeagueLatin Patriarchate of JerusalemArchdiocese of TyreArchdiocese of NazarethArchdiocese of CaesareaArchdiocese of PetraLatin Patriarchate of AntiochLatin Patriarchate of Constantinople

Cities and castles: JerusalemCitadel of Salah Ed-DinConstantinopleAcreKrak des ChevaliersFamagusta

Campaigns and battles: First CrusadeSiege of JerusalemSeljuk–Crusader WarReconquistaSecond CrusadeSiege of DamascusNorthern CrusadesBattle of HattinThird CrusadeBattle of ArsufLivonian CrusadeGerman CrusadeCrusades in ItalyFourth CrusadeAlbigensian CrusadeBattle of Las Navas de TolosaChildren's CrusadeFifth CrusadeSiege of DamiettaPrussian CrusadeSixth CrusadeSeventh CrusadeBattle of Al MansurahShepherds' CrusadeEighth CrusadeNinth CrusadeAragonese CrusadeAlexandrian CrusadeCrusades of the Western SchismBattle of NicopolisHussite WarsCrusade of VarnaFall of ConstantinopleSiege of BelgradeOttoman invasion of OtrantoFall of RhodesOttoman–Venetian WarsOttoman–Habsburg warsBattle of MohácsBattle of LepantoSpanish ArmadaBattle of Vienna

People: al-Hakim bi-Amr AllahAlexios I KomnenosPope Urban IIGodfrey of BouillonBernard of ClairvauxBaldwin of ExeterSaladinRichard I of EnglandLouis IX of FranceGuy of LusignanJames I of AragonMarino Sanuto the ElderPope Clement VITimurJohn HunyadiMuhammad XII of GranadaThomas Stukleyal-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din

Military orders: Knights TemplarHistory of the Knights TemplarKnights HospitallerMilitary orders of the ReconquistaTeutonic Knights

Legacy: History of the Jews and the CrusadesCriticism of the CrusadesTrade and the CrusadesMedieval Christian missions to AsiaSovereign Military Order of Malta Template:/box-footer

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Specific:

# Al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
# Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani
# Baha ad-Din
# Children's Crusade

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  1. Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press. p. xxv. ISBN 0-521-81539-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Janos_Hunyadi
  3. White Knight Clear waters rising: a mountain walk across Europe by Nicholas Crane, Viking, 1996, p. 320)
  4. White Knight of Wallachia [2]
  5. [3]
  6. Encyclopedia of the undead, p. 67, Career Press, 2006
  7. Jihad in the West: Muslim conquests from the 7th to the 21st centuries by Paul Fregosi, p. 244., Prometheus Books, 1998
  8. 8.0 8.1 "János Hunyadi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>