United States presidential election, 1992

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United States presidential election, 1992

← 1988 November 3, 1992 1996 →

All 538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout 55.2%[1]
  44 Bill Clinton 3x4.jpg 43 George H.W. Bush 3x4.jpg RossPerotColor.jpg
Nominee Bill Clinton George H. W. Bush Ross Perot
Party Democratic Republican Independent
Home state Arkansas Texas Texas
Running mate Al Gore Dan Quayle James Stockdale
Electoral vote 370 168 0
States carried 32 + DC 18 0
Popular vote 44,909,806 39,104,550 19,743,821
Percentage 43.0% 37.5% 18.9%

United States presidential election in Alabama, 1992 United States presidential election in Alaska, 1992 United States presidential election in Arizona, 1992 United States presidential election in Arkansas, 1992 United States presidential election in California, 1992 United States presidential election in Colorado, 1992 United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1992 United States presidential election in Delaware, 1992 United States presidential election in Florida, 1992 United States presidential election in Georgia, 1992 United States presidential election in Hawaii, 1992 United States presidential election in Idaho, 1992 United States presidential election in Illinois, 1992 United States presidential election in Indiana, 1992 United States presidential election in Iowa, 1992 United States presidential election in Kansas, 1992 United States presidential election in Kentucky, 1992 United States presidential election in Louisiana, 1992 United States presidential election in Maine, 1992 United States presidential election in Maryland, 1992 United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1992 United States presidential election in Michigan, 1992 United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1992 United States presidential election in Mississippi, 1992 United States presidential election in Missouri, 1992 United States presidential election in Montana, 1992 United States presidential election in Nebraska, 1992 United States presidential election in Nevada, 1992 United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1992 United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1992 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1992 United States presidential election in New York, 1992 United States presidential election in North Carolina, 1992 United States presidential election in North Dakota, 1992 United States presidential election in Ohio, 1992 United States presidential election in Oklahoma, 1992 United States presidential election in Oregon, 1992 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania, 1992 United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1992 United States presidential election in South Carolina, 1992 United States presidential election in South Dakota, 1992 United States presidential election in Tennessee, 1992 United States presidential election in Texas, 1992 United States presidential election in Utah, 1992 United States presidential election in Vermont, 1992 United States presidential election in Virginia, 1992 United States presidential election in Washington, 1992 United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1992 United States presidential election in Wisconsin, 1992 United States presidential election in Wyoming, 1992 United States presidential election in Delaware, 1992 United States presidential election in Maryland, 1992 United States presidential election in New Hampshire, 1992 United States presidential election in New Jersey, 1992 United States presidential election in Massachusetts, 1992 United States presidential election in Connecticut, 1992 United States presidential election in West Virginia, 1992 United States presidential election in Vermont, 1992 United States presidential election in Rhode Island, 1992ElectoralCollege1992.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Bush/Quayle, Blue denotes those won by Clinton/Gore.

President before election

George H. W. Bush

Elected President

Bill Clinton

The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. There were three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush; Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot.

Bush had alienated much of his conservative base by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes. The economy was also in a recession and Bush's perceived greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the relatively peaceful climate in the Middle East after the defeat of Iraq in the Gulf War.

Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote, and a wide Electoral College margin. The election was a significant realigning election after three consecutive Republican landslides.[2][3] Northeastern, Upper Midwest, and West Coast states which had previously been competitive began voting reliably Democratic. This is the most recent election in which an incumbent president was defeated.


Republican Party nomination

Republican candidates

Candidates gallery

Conservative journalist Pat Buchanan was the primary opponent of President Bush; Ron Paul, who had been the Libertarian Presidential nominee in 1988 had himself been planning to run against the President, but dropped out shortly after Buchanan's entry in December. Buchanan's best showing was in the New Hampshire primary on February 18, 1992—where Bush won by a 53–38% margin. President Bush won 73% of all primary votes, with 9,199,463 votes. Buchanan won 2,899,488 votes; unpledged delegates won 287,383 votes, and David Duke, a former Democratic Louisiana state representative and Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan won 119,115 votes. Just over 100,000 votes were cast for all other candidates, half of which were write-in votes for H. Ross Perot[4]

President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle easily won renomination by the Republican Party. However, the success of the conservative opposition forced the moderate Bush to move further to the right than in the previous election, and to incorporate many socially conservative planks in the party platform. Bush allowed Buchanan to give the keynote address at the Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas, and his culture war speech alienated many moderates.

With intense pressure on the Buchanan delegates to relent, the tally for president went as follows:

Vice President Dan Quayle was renominated by voice vote.

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic candidates

Candidates gallery


After the successful performance by U.S. and coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War, President George H.W. Bush's approval ratings were 89%. His re-election was considered very likely. As a result, several high profile candidates, such as Mario Cuomo, refused to seek the Democratic nomination. In addition, Senator Al Gore refused to seek the nomination due to the fact his son was struck by a car and was undergoing extensive surgery as well as physical therapy. However, Tom Harkin, Paul Tsongas, Jerry Brown, Bob Kerrey, Douglas Wilder and Bill Clinton chose to run as candidates.

U.S. Senator Tom Harkin (Iowa) ran as a populist liberal with labor union support. Former U.S. Senator Paul Tsongas (Massachusetts) highlighted his political independence and fiscal conservatism. Former California Governor Jerry Brown, who had run for the Democratic nomination in 1976 and 1980 while he was still Governor, declared a significant reform agenda, including Congressional term limits, campaign finance reform, and the adoption of a flat income tax. Nebraska Senator Bob Kerrey was an attractive candidate based on his business and military background, but made several gaffes on the campaign trail. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton positioned himself as a centrist, or New Democrat. He was still relatively unknown nationally before the primary season. That quickly changed however, when a woman named Gennifer Flowers appeared in the press to reveal allegations of an affair. Clinton rebutted the story by appearing on 60 Minutes with his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

The primary season began with U.S. Senator Tom Harkin winning his native Iowa as expected. Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts won the New Hampshire primary on February 18 but Clinton's second-place finish, helped by his speech labeling himself "The Comeback Kid," energized his campaign. Jerry Brown won the Maine caucus and Bob Kerrey won South Dakota. Clinton won his first primary in Georgia. Tsongas won the Utah and Maryland primaries and a caucus in Washington. Harkin won caucuses in Idaho and Minnesota while Jerry Brown won Colorado. Bob Kerrey dropped out two days later. Clinton won the South Carolina and Wyoming primaries and Tsongas won Arizona. Harkin dropped out. Jerry Brown won the Nevada caucus. Clinton swept nearly all of the Super Tuesday primaries on March 10 making him the solid front runner. Clinton won the Michigan and Illinois primaries. Tsongas dropped out after finishing 3rd in Michigan. Jerry Brown, however, began to pick up steam, aided by using a 1–800 number to receive funding from small donors. Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut, Vermont and Alaska. As the race moved to the primaries in New York and Wisconsin, Brown had taken the lead in polls in both states. Then he made a serious gaffe by announcing to an audience of New York City's Jewish community that, if nominated, he would consider Reverend Jesse Jackson as a Vice Presidential candidate. Clinton won dramatically in New York (41%–26%) and closely in Wisconsin (37%–34%). Clinton then proceeded to win a long streak of primaries leading up to Jerry Brown's home state of California. Clinton won this primary 48% to 41% and secured the delegates needed to clinch the nomination.

The convention met in New York, New York, and the official tally was:

Clinton chose U.S. Senator Al Gore (D-Tennessee) to be his running mate on July 9, 1992. Choosing fellow Southerner Gore went against the popular strategy of balancing a Southern candidate with a Northern partner. Gore did serve to balance the ticket in other ways, as he was perceived as strong on family values and environmental issues, while Clinton was not.[5] Also, Gore's similarities to Clinton allowed him to push some of his key campaign themes, such as centrism and generational change.[6]

Third Parties and Independents

Ross Perot's candidacy

Ross Perot was on the ballot in every state; in six states (Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Louisiana, Oregon, Pennsylvania) Perot was placed upon the ballot through the formation of a political party supporting his candidacy. His electoral performance in each of those states led to those parties being given ballot-qualified status.

The public's concern about the federal budget deficit and fears of professional politicians allowed the independent candidacy of billionaire Texan Ross Perot to explode on the scene in dramatic fashion—at one point Perot was leading the major party candidates in the polls.[7] Perot crusaded against the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), internal and external national debt, tapping into voters' potential fear of the deficit. His volunteers succeeded in collecting enough signatures to get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. In June, Perot led the national public opinion polls with support from 39% of the voters (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton).[7] Perot severely damaged his credibility by dropping out of the presidential contest in July and remaining out of the race for several weeks before re-entering. He compounded this damage by eventually claiming, without evidence, that his withdrawal was due to Republican operatives attempting to disrupt his daughter's wedding.[8]

Perot and Stockdale drew 19,743,821 votes (18.91% of the popular vote)

Libertarian Party Nomination

Andre Marrou was on the ballot in every state.

Libertarian candidates:

The 6th Libertarian Party National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. There, the Libertarian Party nominated Andre Marrou, former Alaska State Representative and the Party's 1988 vice-presidential candidate, for President. Nancy Lord was his running mate.

Marrou and Lord drew 291,627 votes (0.28% of the popular vote).

The Balloting
Presidential Ballot 1st Vice Presidential Ballot 1st 2nd 3rd
Andre Marrou 257 Nancy Lord 98 180 240
Richard B. Boddie 187 Richard B. Boddie 179 160 180
None of the Above 20 Mary Ruwart 129 64 0
Hans G. Schroeder 7 Calvin Warburton 19 20 0
David H. Raaflaub 6 Craig Franklin 10 0 0
Mary Ruwart 2
Craig Franklin 1
Nancy Lord 1

New Alliance Party Nomination

Lenora Fulani was on the ballot in thirty-nine states (352 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which she was an official write-in candidate.

New Alliance candidate:

Lenora Fulani, who was the 1988 presidential nominee of the New Alliance Party, received a second consecutive nomination from the Party in 1992. Unlike in 1988, Fulani failed to gain ballot access in every state, deciding to concentrate some of that campaign funding towards exposure of her candidacy and the Party to the national public.

Fulani also sought the endorsement of the Peace and Freedom Party of California, but despite winning a majority in that party's primary, she would lose the nomination to Ronald Daniels, the former Director the National Rainbow Coalition. Rather than pursuing a ballot space of her own, Fulani would endorse Daniels's candidacy in California.

Fulani and her running mate Maria Elizabeth Munoz received 73,622 votes (0.07% of the popular vote).

Natural Law Party Nomination

John Hagelin was on the ballot in twenty-eight states (264 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Natural Law candidate:

The newly formed Natural Law Party nominated scientist and researcher John Hagelin for President and Mike Tompkins for Vice President. The Natural Law Party had been founded in 1992 by Hagelin and 12 others who felt that governmental problems could be solved more effectively by following "Natural Laws." The party platform included preventive health care, sustainable agriculture and renewable energy technologies. During this and future campaigns, Hagelin favored abortion rights without public financing, campaign finance law reform, improved gun control, a flat tax, the eradication of PACs, a ban on soft money contributions, and school vouchers.

The party's first presidential ticket appeared on the ballot in 28 states and drew 37,137 votes (0.04% of the popular vote).

U.S. Taxpayers' Party Nomination

Howard Phillips was on the ballot in twenty-one states (215 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

U.S. Taxpayers' candidates:

The U.S. Taxpayers Party ran its first presidential ticket in 1992, having only been formed the prior year. Initially Howard Phillips had hoped to successfully entice a prominent conservative politician, such as the former Senator Gordon J. Humphrey of New Hampshire, or even Patrick Buchanan who at the time had only been mulling over running against President Bush (he would officially declare in December of '91).

No one however announced their intention to seek the Taxpayers Party nomination, Buchanan himself in the end endorsing President Bush at the Republican National Convention in Houston. Phillips had been unofficially nominated earlier in the year so as to allow the Party to be able to properly seek ballot access, a temporary post that was made permanent in September, with Phillips and Albion Knight being named the official presidential ticket of the party.

Phillips and Knight drew 43,369 votes (0.04% of the popular vote).

Populist Party Nomination

Bo Gritz was on the ballot in eighteen states (161 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Populist candidate:

Former United States Army Special Forces officer and Vietnam veteran Bo Gritz was the nominee of the Populist Party, facing virtually no opposition. Under the campaign slogan "God, Guns and Gritz" and publishing his political manifesto "The Bill of Gritz" (playing on his last name rhyming with "rights"), he called for staunch opposition to what he called "global government" and "The New World Order", ending all foreign aid, abolishing federal income tax, and abolishing the Federal Reserve System. During the campaign, Gritz openly proclaimed the United States to be a "Christian Nation", stating that the country's legal statutes "should reflect unashamed acceptance of Almighty God and His Laws." His run on the America First/Populist Party ticket was prompted by his association with another far-right political Christian talk radio host, Tom Valentine. During his campaign, part of Gritz's standard stump speech was an idea to pay off the National debt by minting a coin at the Treasury and sending it to the Federal Reserve. This predates the 2012 Trillion dollar coin concept.

During August 1992, Gritz attracted national attention as mediator during the government standoff with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge, Idaho.

He received 106,152 votes nationwide (0.14% of the popular vote). In two states he had a respectable showing for a minor third party candidate: Utah, where he received 3.84% of the vote and Idaho, where he received 2.13% of the vote. In some counties, his support topped 10%, and in Franklin County, Idaho, was only a few votes away from pushing Bill Clinton into fourth place in the county.

Lyndon LaRouche's Candidacy

Lyndon LaRouche was on the ballot in seventeen states (156 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

While officially running for the Democratic Presidential nomination, Lyndon LaRouche also decided to run as an Independent in the general election, standing as the National Economic Recovery candidate. LaRouche was in jail at the time, having been convicted of conspiracy to commit mail fraud in December 1988; it was only the second time in history that the presidency was sought from a prison cell. His running-mate was James Bevel, a civil rights activist who had represented the LaRouche movement in its pursuit of the Franklin child prostitution ring allegations.

In addition to the displayed states, LaRouche had nearly made the ballot in the states of New York and Mississippi. In the case of New York, while his petition was valid and had enough signatures, none of his electors filed declarations of candidacy; in the cases of Mississippi a sore-loser law was in place, and because he ran in that state's Democratic presidential primary he was ineligible to run as an Independent in the general. Ohio also had a sore-loser law, but it was ruled in Brown vs. Taft that it did not apply to presidential candidates. LaRouche and Beval drew 22,863 votes. (0.02% of the popular vote).

Socialist Workers' Party Nomination

James Warren was on the ballot in thirteen states (148 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Socialist Workers candidate:

James Warren, who was the 1988 presidential nominee of the Socialist Workers Party, received a second consecutive nomination from the Party on the first of November 1991. Warren had two running mates that varied from state to state; Estelle DeBates and Willie Mae Reid, the latter also a resident of Illinois.

Warren received 22,882 votes (0.02% of the popular vote).

Ron Daniels Candidacy

Ron Daniels was on the ballot in eight states (126 Electoral Votes). Those states with a lighter shade are states in which he was an official write-in candidate.

Ronald Daniels was the former executive director for the Center for Constitutional Rights, the former director of the National Rainbow Coalition, and the worked on both of Jesse Jackson's campaigns for the Democratic presidential nomination. Asiba Tupahache, a Native American activist from New York was his running-mate.

Though running an Independent campaign under the label "Campaign for a Better Tomorrow", Daniels was endorsed by a number of third parties across the states, most notably the Peace and Freedom Party of California; though he had lost that party's presidential primary to Lenora Fulani, the nominee of the New Alliance Party, the delegates at its convention voted in favor of his candidacy 110-91, the only time it has ever nominated someone other than the winner of the primary.

Daniels and Tupachache drew 27,396 votes (0.03% of the popular vote).

Other nominations

The 1992 campaign also marked the entry of Ralph Nader into presidential politics as a candidate. Despite the advice of several liberal and environmental groups, Nader did not formally run. Rather, he tried to make an impact in the New Hampshire primaries, urging members of both parties to write-in his name.[9] As a result, several thousand Democrats and Republicans wrote-in Nader's name. Despite supporting mostly liberal legislation during his career as a consumer advocate, Nader received more votes from Republicans than Democrats.

The Worker's League nominated Helen Halyard for President; she was the party's nominee for Vice President in 1984 and 1988. Fred Mazelis was nominated for Vice President. Halyard and Mazelis drew 3,050 votes.

Ballot Access: Michigan, New Jersey (33 Electoral)

John Yiamouyiannis, a major opponent of water fluoridation, ran as an Independent under the label "Take Back America". Allen C. McCone was his running-mate. Yiamouyiannis and McCone drew 2,199 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Tennessee (33 Electoral)

The Socialist Party nominated J. Quinn Brisben for President and Barbara Garson for Vice President. Brisben and Garson drew 2,909 votes.

Ballot Access: DC, Tennessee, Utah, Wisconsin (30 Electoral)

The Grassroots Party nominated Jack Herer, a noted cannabis activist for President and Derrick Grimmer for Vice President. Herer and Grimmer drew 3,875 votes.

Ballot Access: Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin (28 Electoral)

The Prohibition Party nominated Earl Dodge, the party's chairman for President and George Ormsby for Vice President. Dodge and Ormsby drew 935 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas, New Mexico, Tennessee (22 Electoral)

Drew Bradford was an Independent candidate for the Presidency; he did not have a running-mate. Bradford drew 4,749 votes.

Ballot Access: New Jersey (15 Electoral)

Eugene R. Hem was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "The Third Party". His running-mate was Joanne Roland. Hem and Roland drew 405 votes.

Ballot Access: Wisconsin (11 Electoral)

Delbert Ehlers was an Independent candidate for the Presidency. His running-mate was Rick Wendt. Ehlers and Wendt drew 1,149 votes.

Ballot Access: Iowa (7 Electoral)

Jim Boren was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "Apathy". His running-mate was Bill Weidman. Boren and Weidman drew 956 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas (6 Electoral)

Professor Isabell Masters was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "Looking Back". Her running-mate was her son, Walter Ray Masters. Masters drew 327 votes.

Ballot Access: Arkansas (6 Electoral)

The American Party nominated Robert J. Smith for President and Doris Feimer for Vice President. However, for a time neither the Utah or South Carolina state parties would endorse the ticket. The American Party of South Carolina would ultimately endorse the candidacy of Howard Phillips, the nominee of the U.S. Taxpayers Party, while the American Party of Utah would decide to endorse Smith. Smith and Feimer drew 291 votes.

Ballot Access: Utah (5 Electoral)

The Workers World Party nominated Gloria La Riva for President and Larry Holmes for Vice President. Initially the party had voted not to field a presidential candidate in 1992, but it was later found that the party would need to get at least half a percent of the vote in New Mexico in order to maintain its ballot access in that state. La Riva and Holmes drew 181 votes.

Ballot Access: New Mexico (5 Electoral)

General election


After Bill Clinton secured the Democratic Party's nomination in the spring of 1992, polls showed Ross Perot leading the race, followed by President Bush and Clinton in third place after a grueling nomination process. Two way trial heats between Bush and Clinton in early 1992 showed Bush in the lead, however.[10][11][12][13] But as the economy continued to grow sour and the President's approval rating continued to slide, the Democrats began to rally around their nominee. On July 9, 1992, Clinton chose Tennessee Senator and former 1988 Presidential candidate Al Gore to be his running mate.[14] As Governor Clinton's nomination acceptance speech approached, Ross Perot dropped out of the race, convinced that staying in the race with a "revitalized Democratic Party" would cause the race to be decided by the United States House of Representatives.[15] Clinton gave his acceptance speech on July 16, 1992, promising to bring a "new covenant" to America, and to work to heal the gap that had developed between the rich and the poor during the Reagan/Bush years.[16] The Clinton campaign received the biggest convention "bounce" in history[17] which brought him from 25 percent in the spring, behind Bush and Perot, to 55 percent versus Bush's 31 percent.

After the convention, Clinton and Gore began a bus tour around the United States, while the Bush/Quayle campaign began to criticize Clinton's character, highlighting accusations of infidelity and draft dodging. The Bush campaign emphasized its foreign policy successes such as Desert Storm, and the end of the Cold War. Bush also contrasted his military service to Clinton's lack thereof, and criticized Clinton's lack of foreign policy expertise. However, as the economy was the main issue, Bush's campaign floundered across the nation, even in strongly Republican areas,[18] and Clinton maintained leads with over 50 percent of the vote nationwide consistently, while Bush typically saw numbers in the upper 30s.[19] As Bush's economic edge had evaporated, his campaign looked to energize its socially conservative base at the 1992 Republican National Convention in Houston, Texas. At the Convention, Bush's primary campaign opponent Pat Buchanan gave his famous "culture war" speech, criticizing Clinton and Gore's social progressiveness, and voicing skepticism on his "New Democrat" brand. After President Bush accepted his renomination, his campaign saw a small bounce in the polls, but this was short lived, as Clinton maintained his lead.[20] The campaign continued with a lopsided lead for Clinton through September,[21] until Ross Perot decided to re-enter the race.[22] Ross Perot's re-entry in the race was welcome by the Bush campaign, as Fred Steeper, a poll taker for Bush, said, "He'll be important if we accomplish our goal, which is to draw even with Clinton." Initially, Perot's return saw the Texas billionaire's numbers stay low, until he was given the opportunity to participate in a trio of unprecedented three-man debates. The race narrowed, as Perot's numbers significantly improved as Clinton's numbers declined, while Bush's numbers remained more or less the same from earlier in the race[23] as Perot and Bush began to hammer at Clinton on character issues once again.

Character issues

Many character issues were raised during the campaign, including allegations that Clinton had dodged the draft during the Vietnam War, and had used marijuana, which Clinton claimed he had pretended to smoke, but "didn't inhale." Bush also accused Clinton of meeting with communists on a trip to Russia he took as a student. Clinton was often accused of being a philanderer by political opponents.

Allegations were also made that Bill Clinton had engaged in a long-term extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers.[24] Clinton denied ever having an affair with Flowers.[25]

Election results by county.
1992 Presidential Election, Results by Congressional District


On November 3, Bill Clinton won the election to be the 42nd President of the United States by a wide margin in the Electoral College, receiving 43 percent of the popular vote against Bush's 37.5 percent and Perot's 18.9%. It was the first time since 1968 that a candidate won the White House with under 50 percent of the popular vote. Only Washington, D.C. and Clinton's home state of Arkansas gave the majority of their votes to a single candidate in the entire country; the rest were won by pluralities of the vote.

President Bush's 37.5% was the lowest percentage total for a sitting president seeking re-election since William Howard Taft in 1912 (23.2%).[26] The 1912 election was also a three way race (between Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and Theodore Roosevelt).

It was also the lowest percentage for a major-party candidate since Alf Landon received 36.5% of the vote in 1936. Bush had a lower percentage of the popular vote than even Herbert Hoover who was defeated in 1932 (Hoover received 39.7%). However, none of these races included a major third candidate. As of the 2012 election, Bush is the last president voted out of office after one term as Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama were all re-elected to second terms in office.

Independent candidate Ross Perot received 19,741,065 with 18.9 percent of the popular vote for President. The billionaire used his own money to advertise extensively, and is the only third-party candidate ever allowed into the nationally televised presidential debates with both major party candidates (Independent John Anderson debated Republican Ronald Reagan in 1980, but without Democrat Jimmy Carter who had refused to appear in a three-man debate). Speaking about the North American Free Trade Agreement, Perot described its effect on American jobs as causing a "giant sucking sound". Perot was ahead in the polls for a period of almost two months – a feat not accomplished by an independent candidate in almost 100 years.[citation needed] Perot lost much of his support when he temporarily withdrew from the election, only to declare himself a candidate again soon after.

Perot's almost 19% of the popular vote made him the most successful third-party presidential candidate in terms of popular vote since Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 election. Also, Ross Perot's 19% of the popular vote was the highest ever percent of the popular vote for a candidate who did not win any electoral votes.

Although he did not win any states, Perot managed to finish ahead of one of the two major party candidates in two states: In Maine, Perot received 30.44% of the vote to Bush's 30.39% (Clinton won Maine with 38.77%); in Utah, Perot received 27.34% of the vote to Clinton's 24.65% (Bush won Utah with 43.36%).

The election was the most recent in which Georgia and Montana voted for the Democratic presidential candidate. 1992 was also the first time since Texas' admission to the Union in 1845 that a Democrat won the White House without winning the state and the second time since Florida's admission (also in 1845) that a Democrat won without winning the state (John F. Kennedy in 1960 was the first). He was also the only Democrat at that point to win every electoral vote in the Northeast except for Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Every Democrat since Clinton has repeated this result, except for Al Gore, who narrowly lost New Hampshire in 2000. Also, this was the first time since 1964 that many states voted Democratic, such as California, Colorado, Illinois, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, and Vermont.


Several factors made the results possible. First, the campaign came on the heels of an economic slowdown. Exit polling shows[27] that 75% thought the economy was in Fairly Bad or Very Bad shape while 63% thought their personal finances were better or the same as four years ago. The decision by Bush to accept a tax increase adversely affected his re-election bid. Pressured by rising budget deficits, Bush agreed to a budget compromise with Congress which raised taxes. Clinton was able to condemn the tax increase effectively on both its own merits and as a reflection of Bush's honesty. Effective Democratic TV ads were aired showing a clip of Bush's infamous 1988 campaign speech in which he promised "Read my lips ... No new taxes." Most importantly, Bush's coalition was in disarray, for both the aforementioned reasons and for unrelated reasons. The end of the Cold War allowed old rivalries among conservatives to re-emerge and meant that other voters focused more on domestic policy, to the detriment of Bush, a social and fiscal moderate. The consequence of such a perception depressed conservative turnout.[28]

Unlike Bush, Clinton was able to unite his fractious and ideologically diverse party behind his candidacy, even when its different wings were in conflict. To garner the support of moderates and conservative Democrats, he attacked Sister Souljah, a little-known rap musician whose lyrics Clinton condemned. Furthermore, Clinton made clear his support of the death penalty and would later champion making school uniforms in public schools a requirement.[29] Clinton could also point to his centrist record as Governor of Arkansas. More liberal Democrats were impressed by Clinton's record on abortion and affirmative action. His strong connections to African Americans also played a key role. In addition, he organized significant numbers of young voters and became a symbol of the rise of the Baby Boomer generation to political power.[30] Supporters remained energized and confident, even in times of scandal or missteps.

The effect of Ross Perot's candidacy has been a contentious point of debate for many years. In the ensuing months after the election, various Republicans asserted that Perot had acted as a spoiler, enough to the detriment of Bush to lose him the election. While many disaffected conservatives may have voted for Ross Perot to protest Bush's tax increase, further examination of the Perot vote in the Election Night exit polls not only showed that Perot siphoned votes nearly equally among Bush and Clinton,[31][32][33][34] but of the voters who cited Bush's broken "No New Taxes" pledge as "very important," two thirds voted for Bill Clinton.[35] A mathematical look at the voting numbers reveals that Bush would have had to win 12.2% of Perot's 18.9% of the vote, 65% of Perot's support base, to earn a majority of the vote, and would have needed to win nearly every state Clinton won by less than five percentage points.[36] Furthermore, Perot was most popular in states that strongly favored either Clinton or Bush, limiting his real electoral impact for either candidate.[37] He gained relatively little support in the Southern states and happened to have the best showing in states with few electoral votes. Perot appealed to disaffected voters all across the political spectrum who had grown weary of the two-party system. NAFTA played a role in Perot's support, and Perot voters were relatively moderate on hot button social issues.[38][39]

Clinton, Bush, and Perot did not focus on abortion during the campaign. Exit polls, however, showed that attitudes toward abortion "significantly influenced" the vote, as pro-choice Republicans defected from Bush.[40][41]


Clinton's election ended an era in which the Republican Party had controlled the White House for 12 consecutive years, and for 20 of the previous 24 years. That election also brought the Democrats full control of the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, including both houses of U.S. Congress and the presidency, for the first time since the administration of the last Democratic president, Jimmy Carter. This would not last for very long, however, as the Republicans won control of both the House and Senate in 1994. Reelected in 1996, Clinton would become the first Democratic President since Franklin D. Roosevelt to serve two full terms in the White House.

1992 was arguably a "realigning" election. It made the Democratic Party dominant in presidential elections in the Northeast, the Great Lakes region, and the West Coast, where many states had previously either been swing states or Republican-leaning. Clinton picked up several states that went Republican in 1988, and which have remained in the Democratic column ever since: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. Vermont, carried by Clinton, had been heavily Republican for generations prior to the election, voting for a Democrat only once (in 1964).[42] The state has been won by the Democratic nominee in every presidential election since. Bill Clinton narrowly defeated Bush in New Jersey (by two points), which had voted for the Republican nominee all but twice since 1948. Clinton would later win the state in 1996 by eighteen points; like Vermont, Republicans have not won the state since.[43] California, which had previously been a Republican stronghold from 1952 to 1988, was now solidly Democratic. Clinton, a lifelong Southerner, was able to carry several states in the South that the GOP had been winning for decades, but ultimately won only four of eleven former Confederate states. This reflected the final shift of the South to the Republican Party.

Detailed results

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
William Jefferson Clinton Democratic Arkansas 44,909,806 43.01% 370 Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. Tennessee 370
George H. W. Bush (Incumbent) Republican Texas 39,104,550 37.45% 168 James Danforth Quayle Indiana 168
Henry Ross Perot Independent Texas 19,743,821 18.91% 0 James Bond Stockdale California 0
Andre Verne Marrou Libertarian Alaska 290,087 0.28% 0 Nancy Lord Nevada 0
Bo Gritz Populist Nevada 106,152 0.10% 0 Cy Minett New Mexico 0
Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party New York 73,622 0.07% 0 Maria Munoz California 0
Howard Phillips U.S. Taxpayers Party Virginia 43,369 0.04% 0 Albion Knight, Jr. Florida 0
Other 152,516 0.13% Other
Total 104,423,923 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1992 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 7, 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 7, 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Popular vote
Electoral vote

Results by state


States/districts won by Clinton/Gore
States/districts won by Bush/Quayle
Bill Clinton
George H.W. Bush
Ross Perot
Andre Marrou
Others Margin State Total
State electoral
#  % electoral
#  % electoral
#  % electoral
#  % electoral
#  % electoral
#  % #
Alabama 9 690,080 40.88 804,283 47.65 9 183,109 10.85 5,737 0.34 4,851 0.29 −114,203 −6.77 1,688,060 AL
Alaska 3 78,294 30.29 102,000 39.46 3 73,481 28.43 1,378 0.53 3,353 1.29 −23,706 −9.17 258,506 AK
Arizona 8 543,050 36.52 572,086 38.47 8 353,741 23.79 6,781 0.46 11,348 0.76 −29,036 −1.95 1,487,006 AZ
Arkansas 6 505,823 53.21 6 337,324 35.48 99,132 10.43 1,261 0.13 7,113 0.75 168,499 17.72 950,653 AR
California 54 5,121,325 46.01 54 3,630,574 32.61 2,296,006 20.63 48,139 0.43 35,677 0.32 1,490,751 13.39 11,131,721 CA
Colorado 8 629,681 40.13 8 562,850 35.87 366,010 23.32 8,669 0.55 1,970 0.13 66,831 4.26 1,569,180 CO
Connecticut 8 682,318 42.21 8 578,313 35.78 348,771 21.58 5,391 0.33 1,539 0.10 104,005 6.43 1,616,332 CT
Delaware 3 126,054 43.52 3 102,313 35.78 59,213 20.45 935 0.32 1,105 0.38 23,741 8.20 289,620 DE
D.C. 3 192,619 84.64 3 20,698 9.10 9,681 4.25 467 0.21 4,107 1.80 171,921 75.55 227,572 DC
Florida 25 2,072,698 39.00 2,173,310 40.89 25 1,053,067 19.82 15,079 0.28 238 0.00 −100,612 −1.89 5,314,392 FL
Georgia 13 1,008,966 43.47 13 995,252 42.88 309,657 13.34 7,110 0.31 148 0.01 13,714 0.59 2,321,133 GA
Hawaii 4 179,310 48.09 4 136,822 36.70 53,003 14.22 1,119 0.30 2,588 0.69 42,488 11.40 372,842 HI
Idaho 4 137,013 28.42 202,645 42.03 4 130,395 27.05 1,167 0.24 10,894 2.26 −65,632 −13.61 482,114 ID
Illinois 22 2,453,350 48.58 22 1,734,096 34.34 840,515 16.64 9,218 0.18 12,978 0.26 719,254 14.24 5,050,157 IL
Indiana 12 848,420 36.79 989,375 42.91 12 455,934 19.77 7,936 0.34 4,206 0.18 −140,955 −6.11 2,305,871 IN
Iowa 7 586,353 43.29 7 504,891 37.27 253,468 18.71 1,076 0.08 8,819 0.65 81,462 6.01 1,354,607 IA
Kansas 6 390,434 33.74 449,951 38.88 6 312,358 26.99 4,314 0.37 199 0.02 −59,517 −5.14 1,157,256 KS
Kentucky 8 665,104 44.55 8 617,178 41.34 203,944 13.66 4,513 0.30 2,161 0.14 47,926 3.21 1,492,900 KY
Louisiana 9 815,971 45.58 9 733,386 40.97 211,478 11.81 3,155 0.18 26,027 1.45 82,585 4.61 1,790,017 LA
Maine 4 263,420 38.77 4 206,504 30.39 206,820 30.44 1,681 0.25 1,074 0.16 56,600 8.33 679,499 ME
Maryland 10 988,571 49.80 10 707,094 35.62 281,414 14.18 4,715 0.24 3,252 0.16 281,477 14.18 1,985,046 MD
Massachusetts 12 1,318,662 47.54 12 805,049 29.03 632,312 22.80 7,458 0.27 10,093 0.36 513,613 18.52 2,773,574 MA
Michigan 18 1,871,182 43.77 18 1,554,940 36.38 824,813 19.30 10,175 0.24 13,563 0.32 316,242 7.40 4,274,673 MI
Minnesota 10 1,020,997 43.48 10 747,841 31.85 562,506 23.96 3,374 0.14 13,230 0.56 273,156 11.63 2,347,948 MN
Mississippi 7 400,258 40.77 487,793 49.68 7 85,626 8.72 2,154 0.22 5,962 0.61 −87,535 −8.92 981,793 MS
Missouri 11 1,053,873 44.07 11 811,159 33.92 518,741 21.69 7,497 0.31 242,714 10.15 2,391,270 MO
Montana 3 154,507 37.63 3 144,207 35.12 107,225 26.12 986 0.24 3,658 0.89 10,300 2.51 410,583 MT
Nebraska 5 217,344 29.40 344,346 46.58 5 174,687 23.63 1,344 0.18 1,562 0.21 −127,002 −17.18 739,283 NE
Nevada 4 189,148 37.36 4 175,828 34.73 132,580 26.19 1,835 0.36 6,927 1.37 13,320 2.63 506,318 NV
New Hampshire 4 209,040 38.91 4 202,484 37.69 121,337 22.59 3,548 0.66 806 0.15 6,556 1.22 537,215 NH
New Jersey 15 1,436,206 42.95 15 1,356,865 40.58 521,829 15.61 6,822 0.20 21,872 0.65 79,341 2.37 3,343,594 NJ
New Mexico 5 261,617 45.90 5 212,824 37.34 91,895 16.12 1,615 0.28 2,035 0.36 48,793 8.56 569,986 NM
New York 33 3,444,450 49.73 33 2,346,649 33.88 1,090,721 15.75 13,451 0.19 31,654 0.46 1,097,801 15.85 6,926,925 NY
North Carolina 14 1,114,042 42.65 1,134,661 43.44 14 357,864 13.70 5,171 0.20 112 0.00 −20,619 −0.79 2,611,850 NC
North Dakota 3 99,168 32.18 136,244 44.22 3 71,084 23.07 416 0.14 1,221 0.40 −37,076 −12.03 308,133 ND
Ohio 21 1,984,942 40.18 21 1,894,310 38.35 1,036,426 20.98 7,252 0.15 17,034 0.34 90,632 1.83 4,939,964 OH
Oklahoma 8 473,066 34.02 592,929 42.65 8 319,878 23.01 4,486 0.32 −119,863 −8.62 1,390,359 OK
Oregon 7 621,314 42.48 7 475,757 32.53 354,091 24.21 4,277 0.29 7,204 0.49 145,557 9.95 1,462,643 OR
Pennsylvania 23 2,239,164 45.15 23 1,791,841 36.13 902,667 18.20 21,477 0.43 4,661 0.09 447,323 9.02 4,959,810 PA
Rhode Island 4 213,299 47.04 4 131,601 29.02 105,045 23.16 571 0.13 2,961 0.65 81,698 18.02 453,477 RI
South Carolina 8 479,514 39.88 577,507 48.02 8 138,872 11.55 2,719 0.23 3,915 0.33 −97,993 −8.15 1,202,527 SC
South Dakota 3 124,888 37.14 136,718 40.66 3 73,295 21.80 814 0.24 539 0.16 −11,830 −3.52 336,254 SD
Tennessee 11 933,521 47.08 11 841,300 42.43 199,968 10.09 1,847 0.09 6,002 0.30 92,221 4.65 1,982,638 TN
Texas 32 2,281,815 37.08 2,496,071 40.56 32 1,354,781 22.01 19,699 0.32 1,652 0.03 −214,256 −3.48 6,154,018 TX
Utah 5 183,429 24.65 322,632 43.36 5 203,400 27.34 1,900 0.26 32,637 4.39 −119,232 −16.03 743,998 UT
Vermont 3 133,592 46.11 3 88,122 30.42 65,991 22.78 501 0.17 1,495 0.52 45,470 15.70 289,701 VT
Virginia 13 1,038,650 40.59 1,150,517 44.97 13 348,639 13.63 5,730 0.22 15,129 0.59 −111,867 −4.37 2,558,665 VA
Washington 11 993,037 43.41 11 731,234 31.97 541,780 23.68 7,533 0.33 13,981 0.61 261,803 11.44 2,287,565 WA
West Virginia 5 331,001 48.41 5 241,974 35.39 108,829 15.91 1,873 0.27 89,027 13.02 683,677 WV
Wisconsin 11 1,041,066 41.13 11 930,855 36.78 544,479 21.51 2,877 0.11 11,837 0.47 110,211 4.35 2,531,114 WI
Wyoming 3 68,160 34.10 79,347 39.70 3 51,263 25.65 844 0.42 270 0.14 −11,187 −5.60 199,884 WY
TOTALS: 538 44,909,806 43.01 370 39,104,550 37.45 168 19,743,821 18.91 290,087 0.28 375,659 0.36 5,805,256 5.56 104,423,923 US

Close states

States with margin of victory less than 5% (202 electoral votes):

  1. Georgia – 0.59%
  2. North Carolina – 0.79%
  3. New Hampshire – 1.22%
  4. Ohio – 1.83%
  5. Florida – 1.89%
  6. Arizona – 1.95%
  7. New Jersey – 2.37%
  8. Montana – 2.51%
  9. Nevada – 2.63%
  10. Kentucky – 3.21%
  11. Texas – 3.48%
  12. South Dakota – 3.52%
  13. Colorado – 4.26%
  14. Wisconsin – 4.35%
  15. Virginia – 4.37%
  16. Louisiana – 4.61%
  17. Tennessee – 4.65%

States with margin of victory between 5% and 10% (131 electoral votes):

  1. Kansas – 5.14%
  2. Wyoming – 5.60%
  3. Iowa – 6.02%
  4. Indiana – 6.12%
  5. Connecticut – 6.43%
  6. Alabama – 6.77%
  7. Michigan – 7.39%
  8. South Carolina – 8.14%
  9. Delaware – 8.19%
  10. Maine – 8.33%
  11. New Mexico – 8.56%
  12. Oklahoma – 8.63%
  13. Mississippi – 8.91%
  14. Pennsylvania – 9.02%
  15. Alaska – 9.17%
  16. Oregon – 9.95%

Source: New York Times President Map

Voter demographics

The Presidential Vote In Social Groups (In Percentages)
% of
3-party vote
1992 1996
Social group Clinton Bush Perot Clinton Dole Perot
Total vote 43 37 19 49 41 8
Party and ideology
2 Liberal Republicans 17 54 30 44 48 9
13 Moderate Republicans 15 63 21 20 72 7
21 Conservative Republicans 5 82 13 6 88 5
4 Liberal Independents 54 17 30 58 15 18
15 Moderate Independents 43 28 30 50 30 17
7 Conservative Independents 17 53 30 19 60 19
13 Liberal Democrats 85 5 11 89 5 4
20 Moderate Democrats 76 9 15 84 10 5
6 Conservative Democrats 61 23 16 69 23 7
Gender and marital status
33 Married men 38 42 21 40 48 10
33 Married women 41 40 19 48 43 7
15 Unmarried men 48 29 22 49 35 12
20 Unmarried women 53 31 15 62 28 7
83 White 39 40 20 43 46 9
10 Black 83 10 7 84 12 4
5 Hispanic 61 25 14 72 21 6
1 Asian 31 55 15 43 48 8
46 White Protestant 33 47 21 36 53 10
29 Catholic 44 35 20 53 37 9
3 Jewish 80 11 9 78 16 3
17 Born Again, religious right 23 61 15 26 65 8
17 18–29 years old 43 34 22 53 34 10
33 30–44 years old 41 38 21 48 41 9
26 45–59 years old 41 40 19 48 41 9
24 60 and older 50 38 12 48 44 7
6 Not a high school graduate 54 28 18 59 28 11
24 High school graduate 43 36 21 51 35 13
27 Some college education 41 37 21 48 40 10
26 College graduate 39 41 20 44 46 8
17 Post graduate education 50 36 14 52 40 5
Family income
11 Under $15,000 58 23 19 59 28 11
23 $15,000–$29,999 45 35 20 53 36 9
27 $30,000–$49,999 41 38 21 48 40 10
39 Over $50,000 39 44 17 44 48 7
18 Over $75,000 36 48 16 41 51 7
9 Over $100,000 38 54 6
23 East 47 35 18 55 34 9
26 Midwest 42 37 21 48 41 10
30 South 41 43 16 46.0 45.9 7.3
20 West 43 34 23 48 40 8
Community size
10 Population over 500,000 58 28 13 68 25 6
21 Population 50,000 to 500,000 50 33 16 50 39 8
39 Suburbs 41 39 21 47 42 8
30 Rural areas, towns 39 40 20 45 44 10

Source: Voter News Service exit poll, reported in The New York Times, November 10, 1996, 28.

See also


  1. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved October 21, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2013/nov/10/george-will/george-will-paints-dire-electoral-picture-gop-says/
  3. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-11-15/news/ct-oped-1115-chapman-20121115_1_electoral-college-popular-vote-stanford-historian-jack-rakove
  4. Our Campaigns – US President – R Primaries Race – February 1, 1992
  5. Ifill, Gwen (July 10, 1992), "Clinton Selects Senator Gore Of Tennessee As Running Mate", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Al Gore, United States Senate<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "The 1992 Campaign: On the Trail; Poll Gives Perot a Clear Lead", The New York Times, June 11, 1992<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Berke, Richard L. (October 26, 1992), "The 1992 Campaign: The Overview; Perot Says He Quit In July To Thwart G.O.P. 'Dirty Tricks'", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Kolbert, Elizabeth (February 18, 1992), "In Nader's Campaign, White House Isn't the Goal", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Toner, Robin (March 3, 1992), "Voters Are Unhappy With All the Choices", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Toner, Robin (April 1, 1992), "Clinton Dogged By Voter Doubt, Poll of U.S. Says", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Toner, Robin (April 26, 1992), "Poll Shows Perot Gaining Strength To Rival Clinton's", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Toner, Robin (June 23, 1992), "Bush and Clinton Sag in Survey; Perot's Negative Rating Doubles", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  16. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25958
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  18. Miller, Judith (August 16, 1992), "The Republicans: Can They Get It Together?", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Bush Trails, to Varying Degrees, in 3 Polls", The New York Times, August 17, 1992<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Clymer, Adam (August 26, 1992), "Bush's Gains From Convention Nearly Evaporate in Latest Poll", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  23. Toner, Robin (October 25, 1992), "Contest Tightens As Perot Resurges And Clinton Slips", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Conason, Joe (July/August 1992). "Reason No. 1 Not To Vote For Bill Clinton: He Cheats on His Wife." Spy magazine.
  25. Kurtz, Howard (August 12, 1992). "Clinton Angrily Denounces Report of Extramarital Affair as 'a Lie.'" The Washington Post.
  26. Kornacki, Steve (January 21, 2011) Why the "good" Iraq war wasn't so good, Salon.com
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    • Bulk of article text as of January 9, 2003 copied from this page, when it was located at http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/history/ch13.htm#1992 and titled "An Outline of American History: Chapter 13: Toward the 21st century".
    • An archival version of this page is available at the Wayback Machine (archived November 3, 2004)
    • This page is in the public domain as a government publication.

Further reading

  • Abramowitz, Alan I. (1995), "It's Abortion, Stupid: Policy Voting in the 1992 Presidential Election", Journal of Politics, Cambridge University Press, 57 (1): 176–186, doi:10.2307/2960276, ISSN 0022-3816, JSTOR 2960276<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Alexander, Herbert E. (1995), Financing the 1992 Election, Armonk: Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-437-3 Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Defrank, Thomas M.; et al. (1994), Quest for the Presidency, 1992, College Station: Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-644-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lacy, Dean; Burden, Barry C. (1999), "The Vote-Stealing and Turnout Effects of Ross Perot in the 1992 U.S. Presidential Election", American Journal of Political Science, Midwest Political Science Association, 43 (1): 233–255, doi:10.2307/2991792, JSTOR 2991792<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • De la Garza, Rodolfo O. (1996), Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections, Boulder: Westview, ISBN 0-8133-8910-0 Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jones, Bryan D. (1995), The New American Politics: Reflections on Political Change and the Clinton Administration, Boulder: Westview, ISBN 0-8133-1972-2<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Steed, Robert P. (1994), The 1992 Presidential Election in the South: Current Patterns of Southern Party and Electoral Politics, Westport: Praeger, ISBN 0-275-94534-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links