Help:IPA for Norwegian

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The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The accent that has been used here as a model is Standard Eastern Norwegian, which is not an official standard of the Norwegian language because of the the Norwegian language conflict, but it is the accent usually taught to foreigners. See also Norwegian phonology for more details about pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
b bil bee
ç kjip Similar to huge
d dag day
ɖ sardin[1] North American order
f fot foot
ɡ god good
h hatt hat
j jojo yoyo
k kafé café
l lake lack
ɭ Karl[1] North American twirl
m man man
n natt night
ɳ barn[1] North American turner
ŋ ting thing
p pappa papa
r år[1][2] A tapped or trilled "r".
s sabel sabre
ʂ sjø, torsdag[1] shoe
t tirsdag tea
ʈ parti[1] North American cartel
v vaktel vat
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Monophthongs
ɑ fast art
ɑː mat bra, RP car
æ fersk[3] trap
æː ære[3] Australian ham
ɛ helle[3] North American and RP set
hel[3] Scottish save
ɪ sill hill
i need
ɔ åtte[4] RP lot; North American fort
mål[4] Scottish stove; RP law
œ nøtt[4] similar to Burt; German short ö
øː dø[4] similar to bird; German long ö
ʊ ond[4] put, with tight lips
bot[4] fool
ʉ full[4][5] somewhat like put; German About this sound müssen
ʉː ful[4][6] like Scottish do; German About this sound üben
ʏ nytt[4][5] somewhat like hit; Swedish About this sound syll
syl[4][6] somewhat like leave; Swedish About this sound syl
Diphthongs
ɑɪ kai[7] Australian price
æɪ bein Australian day
æʉ hauk[4] Somewhat like Australian now
ɛɪ tape[7] day
ɔʏ boikott[4][7] boy
œʏ røyk[4] Somewhat like Scottish house
ʉɪ hui[4][8] to eternity
Reduced vowels
ə påle about
Stress and tone
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈɑ Rana
[ˈrɑːnɑ]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Low tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
ˈɑ.ˈɑ rana
[ˈrɑːˈnɑ]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 [ɔ, , œ, øː, ʏ, , ɔʏ, œʏ] are protruded vowels, whereas [ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] (including the [ʉ] element in [æʉ] and [ʉɪ]) are compressed; see roundedness for details.
  5. 5.0 5.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen About this sound [ˈmʏsn̩]).
    • Protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and is very close to Swedish protruded [ʏ] (as in syll About this sound [sʏlː]).
  6. 6.0 6.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [] (as in üben About this sound [ˈyːbn̩]).
    • Protruded [] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [], and is very close to Swedish protruded [] (as in syl About this sound [syːl]).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 /ɑɪ, ɛɪ, ɔʏ/ appear only in loanwords. /ɛɪ/ is used only by some younger speakers, who contrast it with /æɪ/; speakers who do not have /ɛɪ/ in their diphthong inventory replace it with /æɪ/ (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).
  8. /ʉɪ/ appears only in the word hui (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).

References