The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The accent that has been used here as a model is Standard Eastern Norwegian, which is not an official standard of the Norwegian language because of the the Norwegian language conflict, but it is the accent usually taught to foreigners. See also Norwegian phonology for more details about pronunciation.
||Nearest English equivalent
||Similar to huge
||North American order
||North American twirl
||North American turner
||A tapped or trilled "r".
||North American cartel
|Stress and tone
|Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Low tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
|Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
- ↑ /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 [ɔ, oː, œ, øː, ʏ, yː, ɔʏ, œʏ] are protruded vowels, whereas [ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, uː] (including the [ʉ] element in [æʉ] and [ʉɪ]) are compressed; see roundedness for details.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
- Compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen [ˈmʏsn̩]).
- Protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and is very close to Swedish protruded [ʏ] (as in syll [sʏlː]).
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [yː] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
- Compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [yː] (as in üben [ˈyːbn̩]).
- Protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [iː] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and is very close to Swedish protruded [yː] (as in syl [syːl]).
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 /ɑɪ, ɛɪ, ɔʏ/ appear only in loanwords. /ɛɪ/ is used only by some younger speakers, who contrast it with /æɪ/; speakers who do not have /ɛɪ/ in their diphthong inventory replace it with /æɪ/ (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).
- ↑ /ʉɪ/ appears only in the word hui (Kristoffersen (2000:19)).
- Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
- Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
- Skaug, Ingebjørg (2003) [First published 1996], Norsk språklydlære med øvelser (3rd ed.), Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS, ISBN 82-456-0178-0
- Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6