Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

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Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Part of the Spanish colonization of the Americas and Mexican Indian Wars
The Conquest of Tenochtitlan.jpg
Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas.[1]
Spanish: Conquista de México por Cortés
Date February 1519 – August 13, 1521
Location Aztec Empire (now modern day Mexico)
Result Spanish-Tlaxcalan victory

Aztec Empire is annexed by Spanish Empire

 Aztec Empire

Spain Spanish conquistadors
EscudodeTlaxcala.png Tlaxcala

Escudo de armas de Zempoala.gifCempoala
Commanders and leaders
Moctezuma II 
Cuauhtémoc (POW)
Hernán Cortés
Pedro de Alvarado
Xicotencatl the Younger

90–100 cavalry
900–1,300 infantry
6 guns
13 brigantines
Tlaxcala: 80,000–200,000

Cempoala: 400″

The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire (begun February 1519) was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

The conquest must be understood within the context of Spanish patterns on the Iberian Peninsula during the Reconquista by Christians, defeating the Muslims, who had ruled the peninsula since 711. These patterns extended to the Caribbean following Christopher Columbus' establishment of permanent European settlement in the Caribbean. The Spanish authorized expeditions or entradas for the discovery, conquest, and colonization of new territory, using existing Spanish settlements as a base. Many of those on the Cortés expedition of 1519 had never seen combat before. In fact, Cortés had never commanded men in battle before. However, there was a whole generation of Spaniards who participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme (Central America), learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices.[2]

The Spanish campaign began in February 1519, and was declared victorious on August 13, 1521, when a coalition army of Spanish forces and native Tlaxcalan warriors led by Hernán Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured the emperor Cuauhtemoc and Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire.

During the campaign, Cortés was given support from a number of tributaries and rivals of the Aztecs, including the Totonacs, and the Tlaxcaltecas, Texcocans, and other city-states particularly bordering Lake Texcoco. In their advance, the allies were tricked and ambushed several times by the people they encountered. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on November 8, 1519, where he took up residence, welcomed by Moctezuma. When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, he took the opportunity to take Moctezuma captive, Moctezuma allowed himself to be captured as a diplomatic gesture. Capturing the cacique or indigenous ruler was standard operating procedure for Spaniards in their expansion in the Caribbean, so capturing Moctezuma had considerable precedent, which might well have included those in Spain during the Christian reconquest of territory held by Muslims.[3]

When Cortés left Tenochtitlan to return to the coast and deal with the expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez, Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge. Alvarado allowed a significant Aztec feast to be celebrated in Tenochtitlan and on the pattern of the earlier massacre in Cholula, closed off the square and massacred the celebrating Aztec noblemen. The biography of Cortés by Francisco López de Gómara contains a description of the massacre.[4] The Alvarado massacre at the Main Temple of Tenochtitlan precipitated rebellion by the population of the city. When the captured emperor Moctezuma II, now seen as a mere puppet of the invading Spaniards, attempted to calm the outraged populace, he was killed by a projectile.[5] Cortés, who by then had returned to Tenochtitlan and his men fled the capital city during the Noche Triste in June, 1520. The Spanish, Tlaxcalans and reinforcements returned a year later on August 13, 1521 to a civilization that had been wiped out by famine and smallpox. This made it easier to conquer the remaining Aztecs.

The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish overseas empire, with New Spain, which later became Mexico, a major component.

Sources for the history of the conquest of Central Mexico

The conquest of Mexico is not only a significant event in world history, but is also particularly important because there are multiple accounts of the conquest from different points of view, both Spanish and indigenous. The Spanish conquerors could and did write accounts that narrated the conquest from the first landfalls in Mexico to the final victory over the Mexica in Tenochtitlan on August 13, 1521. Indigenous accounts are from particular indigenous viewpoints (either allies or opponents) and as the events had a direct impact on their polity. All accounts of the conquest, Spanish and indigenous alike, have biases and exaggerations. In general, Spanish accounts do not credit their indigenous allies' support. Individual conquerors' accounts exaggerate that individual's contribution to the conquest, downplaying other conquerors'. Indigenous allies' accounts stress their loyalty to the Spaniards and their particular aid as being key to the Spanish victory. Their accounts are similar to Spanish conquerors' accounts contained in petitions for rewards, known as benemérito petitions.[6]

Two lengthy accounts from the defeated indigenous viewpoint were created under the direction of Spanish friars, Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and Dominican Diego Durán, using indigenous informants.[7]

The first Spanish account of the conquest was by lead conqueror Hernán Cortés, who wrote a series of letters to the Spanish monarch Charles V, giving a contemporary account of the conquest from his point of view, but also justifying his actions. These were almost immediately published in Spain and later in Europe. Much later, Spanish conqueror Bernal Díaz del Castillo, a well-seasoned participant in the conquest of Central Mexico, wrote what he called The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, countering the account by Cortés's official biographer, Francisco López de Gómara. Bernal Díaz's account had begun as a benemérito petition for rewards but he expanded it to encompass a full history of his earlier expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme and the conquest of the Aztecs. A number of lesser Spanish conquerors wrote benemérito petitions to the Spanish crown, requesting rewards for their services in the conquest, including Juan Díaz, Andrés de Tapia, García del Pilar, and Fray Francisco de Aguilar.[8] Interestingly, Cortés's right-hand man, Pedro de Alvarado did not write at any length about his actions in the New World, and died as a man of action in the Mixtón War in 1542. Two letters to Cortés about Alvarado's campaigns in Guatemala a published in The Conquistadors.[9] The chronicle of the so-called "Anonymous Conqueror" was written sometime in the sixteenth century, entitled in an early twentieth-century translation to English as Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan (i.e.Tenochtitlan). Rather than its being a petition for rewards for services, as many Spanish accounts were situation, the Anonymous Conqueror made observations about the indigenous at the time of the conquest. The account was used by eighteenth-century Jesuit Francisco Javier Clavijero in his history of Mexico.[10]

On the indigenous side, the allies of Cortés, particularly the Tlaxcalans, wrote extensively about their services to the crown in the conquest, arguing for special privileges for themselves. The most important of these are the pictorial Lienzo de Tlaxcala and the Historia de Tlaxcala by Diego Muñoz Camargo. Less successfully the Nahua allies from Huexotzinco (or Huejotzinco) near Tlaxcala argued that their contributions had been overlooked by the Spanish. In a letter in Nahuatl to the Spanish crown, the indigenous lords of Huejotzinco lay out their case in Nahuatl for their valorous service. The letter has been published in Nahuatl and English translation by James Lockhart in We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico,.[11] Texcoco patriot and member of a noble family there, Fernando Alva Ixtlilxochitl, likewise petitioned the Spanish crown, in Spanish, saying that Texcoco had not received sufficient rewards for their support of the Spanish, particularly after the Spanish were forced out from Tenochtitlan.[12]

The most well known indigenous account of the conquest is Book 12 of Bernardino de Sahagún's General History of the Things of New Spain and published as the Florentine Codex, in parallel columns of Nahuatl and Spanish, with pictorials. Less well known is Sahagún's 1585 revision of the conquest account, which shifts from an entirely indigenous viewpoint and inserts at crucial junctures passages lauding the Spanish and in particular Hernán Cortés.[13] Another indigenous account compiled by a Spanish friar is Dominican Diego Durán's The History of the Indies of New Spain, from 1581, with many color illustrations.[14] Another text from the Nahua point of view, the Anales de Tlatelolco, a very early indigenous account in Nahuatl, perhaps from 1540, remained in indigenous hands until it was later published. An extract of this important manuscript has been published by James Lockhart in Nahuatl transcription and English translation.[15] A popular anthology in English for classroom use is Miguel León-Portilla's, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico.[16] Not surprisingly, many publications and republications of sixteenth-century accounts of the conquest of Mexico appeared around 1992, the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's first voyage, when scholarly and popular interest in first encounters surged.

The most popular and enduring narrative of the Spanish campaign in central Mexico is by New England-born nineteenth-century historian William Hickling Prescott. His History of the Conquest of Mexico, first published in 1843 remains an enormously engaging narrative of the conquest, based on a large number of sources copied from the Spanish archives.[17] Prescott based his narrative history on primary source documentation, mainly from the Spanish viewpoint, but it is likely that the copy of the Spanish text of the 1585 revision of Bernardino de Sahagǘn's account of the conquest was done for Prescott's history.[18]

Significant events in the conquest of Central Mexico

Historical sources for the conquest of Mexico recount some of the same events in both Spanish and indigenous sources. Others, however, are unique to a particular primary source or group narrating the event. Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while often denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both.

Aztec omens for the conquest

In the sources recorded by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and Dominican Diego Durán, there are accounts of events of a supernatural nature that could be seen as omens of the conquest. These two accounts are full-blown narratives from the viewpoint of the Spaniards' opponents. Most first-hand accounts about the conquest of the Aztec empire were written by Spaniards: Hernán Cortés' letters to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and the first-person narrative of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain. The primary sources from the native people affected as a result of the conquest are seldom observed because they tend to reflect the views of a particular native group, such as the Tlaxcalans. Indigenous accounts were written in pictographs as early as 1525. Later accounts were written in the native tongue of the Aztecs and the native peoples of central Mexico, Nahuatl.

It is also important to note that the native texts of the defeated Mexica narrating their version of the conquest described eight omens that were believed to have occurred nine years prior to the arrival of the Spanish from the Gulf of Mexico.[19] The eight bad omens or wonders:[16]:3–11

Aztec empire on the eve of the Spanish Invasion
  1. A column of fire that appeared from midnight until dawn, and seemed to rain fire in the year 1517 (12-House).
  2. Fire consuming the temple of Huitzilopochtli.
  3. A lightning bolt destroying the straw temple of Xiuhtecuhtli.
  4. The appearance of fire, or comets, streaming across the sky in threes during the day.
  5. The “boiling deep ,” and water flooding, of a lake nearby Tenochtitlan.
  6. A woman, Cihuatcoatl, weeping in the middle of the night for them (the Aztecs) to "flee far away from this city".
  7. A two headed man, tlacantzolli, running through the streets.
  8. Montezuma saw the stars of mamalhuatztli, and images of fighting men riding "on the backs of animals resembling deer", in a mirror on the crown of a bird caught by fishermen.

Additionally, the Tlaxcala saw a "radiance that shone in the east every morning three hours before sunrise", and a "whirlwind of dust" from Matlalcueye.[16]:11 According to Diaz, "These Caciques also told us of a tradition they had heard from their ancestors, that one of the idols which they particularly worshipped had prophesied the coming of men from distant lands in the direction of the sunrise, who would conquer them and rule them."[20]:181

Omens were extremely important to the Aztecs, who believed that history repeated itself. Emperor Moctezuma, often spelled Montezuma in English, who was trained as a high priest, was said to have consulted his chief priests and fortune tellers to determine the causes of these omens. However, they were unable to provide an exact explanation until, perhaps, the Spaniards arrived. A number of modern scholars cast doubt on whether such omens occurred or whether they were ex post facto creations to help the Mexica explain their defeat.[21]

Many sources depicting omens and the return of old Aztec gods, including those supervised by Spanish priests, were written after the fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Some ethnohistorians say that when the Spanish arrived native peoples and their leaders did not view them as supernatural in any sense but rather as simply another group of powerful outsiders.[22] Many Spanish accounts incorporated omens to emphasize what they saw as the preordained nature of the conquest and their success as Spanish destiny. This means that native emphasis on omens and bewilderment in the face of invasion "may be a postconquest interpretation by informants who wished to please the Spaniards or who resented the failure of Montezuma and of the warriors of Tenochtitlan to provide leadership."[23] Hugh Thomas concludes that Moctezuma was confused and ambivalent about whether Cortés was a god or the ambassador of a great king in another land. (p. 192). However, Thomas does not support the theory that the Aztec Emperor really believed that Cortés was any reincarnation of Quetzalcoatl.

Spanish arrival in Yucatán

In 1517 Cuban governor, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, commissioned a fleet of three ships under the command of Hernández de Córdoba to sail west and explore the Yucatán peninsula. Córdoba reached the coast of Yucatán. The Mayans at Cape Catoche invited the Spaniards to land, and the Spaniards read the Requirement of 1513 to them, which offered the natives the protection of the King of Spain, if they would submit to him. Córdoba took two prisoners, who adopted the baptized names of Melchor and Julián, and became interpreters. On the western side of the Yucatán Peninsula, the Spaniards were attacked at night by Maya chief Mochcouoh (Mochh Couoh). Fifty Spaniards were killed. Córdoba was mortally wounded and only a remnant of his crew returned to Cuba.[20]:15–26

Yucatán was briefly explored by the Spanish, but the Spanish conquest of Yucatán with its many independent city-state polities of the Late Postclassic Maya civilization came many years after the Spaniards' rapid conquest of Central Mexico, 1519-21. With the help of tens of thousands of Xiu Mayan warriors, it would take more than 170 years for the Spanish to establish full control of the Maya homelands, which extended from northern Yucatán to the central lowlands region of El Petén and the southern Guatemalan highlands. The end of this latter campaign is generally marked by the downfall of the Maya state based at Tayasal in the Petén region, in 1697.

Cortés' expedition

Commissioning the expedition

Map depicting Cortés' conquest route

Even before Juan de Grijalva returned to Spain, Velázquez decided to send a third and even larger expedition to explore the Mexican coast.[24] Hernán Cortés, then one of Velázquez's favorites and brother-in-law, was named as the commander, which created envy and resentment among the Spanish contingent in the Spanish colony.[24] Velázquez's instructions to Cortés, in an agreement signed on 23 October 1518, were limited to leading an expedition to initiate trade relations with the indigenous coastal tribes, but no authorization for conquest or settlement.

One account suggests that Governor Velázquez wished to restrict the Cortés expedition to being a pure trading expedition. Invasion of the mainland was to be a privilege reserved for himself as the senior official in Cuba. However, by calling upon the knowledge of the law of Castile that Cortés likely gained while he was a student in Salamanca and by utilizing his powers of persuasion, Cortés was able to maneuver Governor Velázquez into inserting a clause into his orders that enabled Cortés to take emergency measures without prior authorization, if such were " the true interests of the realm." He was also named the chief military leader and chief magistrate (judge) of the expedition. Such licenses for expeditions allowed the crown to retain sovereignty over newly conquered lands while not risking its own assets in the enterprise. Spaniards with assets who were willing to risk them to increase their wealth and power could potentially gain even more.[25]

Cortés invested a considerable part of his personal fortune to equip the expedition and probably went into debt to borrow additional funds. Expeditions of exploration and conquest were business enterprises, with those investing the more in the enterprise receiving more rewards upon its success. Greater risk reaped greater rewards. Men who brought horses, caballeros, received two shares of the spoils of war, one for the warrior himself, another because of the horse.[25] When his assets were depleted, Governor Velázquez may have personally contributed nearly half the cost of the expedition.

The ostentatious nature of this operation and the rapidity of its commission probably added to the envy and resentment of the Spanish contingent in Cuba, who were keenly aware of the opportunity this assignment offered for fame, fortune and glory.

Revoking the commission

Velázquez himself must have been keenly aware that whoever conquered the mainland for Spain would gain fame, glory and fortune to eclipse anything that could be achieved in Cuba. Thus, as the preparations for departure drew to a close, the governor became suspicious that Cortés would be disloyal to him and try to commandeer the expedition for his own purposes,[26] namely to establish himself as governor of the colony, independent of Velázquez's control.

For this reason, Velázquez sent Luis de Medina with orders to replace Cortés. However, Cortés' brother-in-law allegedly had Medina intercepted and killed. The papers that Medina had been carrying were sent to Cortés. Thus warned, Cortés accelerated the organization and preparation of his expedition.[27]

Velázquez arrived at the Santiago de Cuba dock in person, "he and Cortes again embraced, with a great exchange of compliments", before Cortes set sail for Trinidad, Cuba. Velázquez then sent orders for the fleet to be held and Cortés taken prisoner. Nevertheless, Cortes set sail, beginning his conquest of New Spain with the legal status of a mutineer.[20]:49,51,55–56

Cortés's contingent consisted of 11 ships carrying about 630 men (including 30 crossbowmen and 12 arquebusiers, an early form of firearm), a doctor, several carpenters, at least eight women, a few hundred Cuban Arawak indigenous and some Africans, both freedmen and slaves. Although modern usage often calls the European participants "soldiers", the term is never used by these men themselves in any context, something that James Lockhart realized when analyzing sixteenth-century legal records from conquest-era Peru.[28]

Cortés lands at Cozumel

Cortés spent some time at Cozumel island, trying to convert the locals to Christianity and achieving mixed results. While at Cozumel, Cortés heard reports of other white men living in the Yucatán. Cortés sent messengers to these reported castilianos, who turned out to be the survivors of a Spanish shipwreck that had occurred in 1511, Gerónimo de Aguilar and Gonzalo Guerrero.

Aguilar petitioned his Maya chieftain to be allowed leave to join with his former countrymen, and he was released and made his way to Cortés's ships. According to Bernal Díaz, Aguilar relayed that before coming he had unsuccessfully attempted to convince Guerrero to leave as well. Guerrero declined on the basis that he was by now well-assimilated with the Maya culture, had a Maya wife and three children, and he was looked upon as a figure of rank within the Maya settlement of Chetumal where he lived.[29]

Although Guerrero's later fate is somewhat uncertain, it appears that for some years he continued to fight alongside the Maya forces against Spanish incursions, providing military counsel and encouraging resistance; it is speculated that he may have been killed in a later battle.

Aguilar, now quite fluent in Maya as well as some other indigenous languages, proved to be a valuable asset for Cortés as a translator - a skill of particular significance to the later conquest of the Aztec Empire that was to be the end result of Cortés' expedition.[30]

Cortés lands on the Yucatán peninsula

After leaving Cozumel, Hernán Cortés continued round the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and landed at Potonchán, where there was little gold. However, Cortés, after defeating the local natives in two battles, discovered a far more valuable asset in the form of a woman whom Cortés would have christened Marina. She is often known as La Malinche and also sometimes called "Malintzin" or Malinalli, her native birth names. Later, the Aztecs would come to call Cortés "Malintzin" or La Malinche by dint of his close association with her.[31]

Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote in his account The True History of the Conquest of New Spain that Marina was "truly a great princess." Later the respectful title of Doña would be added to her baptized name.[20]:80,82

Her lineage notwithstanding, Cortés had stumbled upon one of the keys to realizing his ambitions. He would speak to Gerónimo de Aguilar in Spanish who would then translate into Mayan for Marina. She would then translate from Mayan to Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. With this pair of translators, Cortés could now communicate to the Aztecs.[20]:86–87 How effectively is still a matter of speculation, since Marina did not speak the dialect of the Aztecs nor was she familiar with the protocols of the Aztec nobility, who were renowned for their flowery, flattering talk.

Doña Marina quickly learned Spanish, and became Cortés's primary interpreter, confidant, consort, cultural translator, and the mother of his son, Martin.[20]:82 Until Cortes's marriage to his second wife, a union which produced a legitimate son whom he also named Martin, Cortés's natural son with Marina was his heir.

Native speakers of Nahuatl would call her "Malintzin." This name is the closest phonetic approximation possible in Nahuatl to the sound of 'Marina' in Spanish. Over time, "La Malinche" (the modern Spanish cognate of 'Malintzin') became a term that denotes a traitor to one's people. To this day, the word malinchista is used by Mexicans to denote one who apes the language and customs of another country.[32] It would not be until the late 20th century that a few feminist writers and academics would attempt to rehabilitate La Malinche as a woman who made the best of her situation and became, in most respects, the most powerful woman in the Western Hemisphere, as well as the founder of the modern Mexican nation.

Cortés founds the Spanish town of Veracruz

Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz. First town council founded by Spaniards. Tile mosaic located in Mexico City.

Cortés landed his expedition force on the coast of the modern day state of Veracruz in April 1519. During this same period, soon after he arrived, Cortés was welcomed by representatives of the Aztec Emperor, Moctezuma II. Gifts were exchanged, and Cortés attempted to frighten the Aztec delegation with a display of his firepower.[16]:26[20]:89–91

Faced with imprisonment or death for defying the governor, Cortés' only alternative was to continue on with his enterprise in the hope of redeeming himself with the Spanish Crown. To do this, he directed his men to establish a settlement called La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, or "True Cross", since they arrived on Maundy Thursday and landed on Good Friday. The legally constituted "town council of Villa Rica" then promptly offered him the position of adelantado, or Chief Justice and Captain-General.[20]:102

This strategy was not unique.[33] Velásquez had used this same legal mechanism to free himself from Diego Columbus' authority in Cuba. In being named adelantado by a duly constituted cabildo, Cortés was able to free himself from Velásquez's authority and continue his expedition. To ensure the legality of this action several members of his expedition, including Francisco Montejo and Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero, returned to Spain to seek King Charles acceptance of the cabildo's declaration.[20]:127–128

He learned of an indigenous settlement called Cempoala and marched his forces there. On their arrival in Cempoala, they were greeted by 20 dignitaries and cheering townsfolk.[20]:88,107 Cortés quickly persuaded the Totonac chiefs to rebel against the Aztecs, taking prisoner five of Moctezuma's tax collectors.[20]:111–113 The Totonacs also helped Cortés build the town of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, which was the starting point for his attempt to conquer the Aztec empire.[20]:114

Hearing of the rebellion, more ambassadors from the Aztec Emperor returned to see Cortes, bearing gifts of "gold and cloth", in thankfulness for Cortes freeing his tax collectors. Montezuma also told Cortes, he was certain the Spanish were of "his own race", and had arrived as "his ancestors had foretold". As Cortes told his men, the natives "think us gods, or godlike beings."[16]:13,21,25,33,35[20]:115–117

Although they attempted to dissuade Cortés from visiting Tenochtitlan, the lavish gifts and the polite, welcoming remarks only encouraged El Caudillo to continue his march on the capital of the empire.[20]:96,166

Scuttling the fleet and aftermath

Cortés scuttling fleet off Veracruz coast

Those of his men still loyal to the Governor of Cuba conspired to seize a ship and escape to Cuba, but Cortés moved swiftly to squash their plans. Two ringleaders were condemned to be hanged; two were lashed, and one had his foot mutilated. To make sure such a mutiny did not happen again, he decided to scuttle his ships.[20]:128–130

There is a popular misconception that the ships were burned rather than sunk. This misconception has been attributed to the reference made by Cervantes de Salazar in 1546 as to Cortés burning his ships.[34] This may have also come from a mistranslation of the version of the story written in Latin.[35]

With all of his ships scuttled, Cortés effectively stranded the expedition in Mexico. However, it did not completely end the aspirations of those members of his company who remained loyal to the Governor of Cuba. Cortés then led his band inland towards the fabled Tenochtitlan.

In addition to the Spaniards, Cortés force now included 40 Cempoalan warrior chiefs and at least 200 other natives whose task was to drag the cannon and carry supplies.[20]:134 The Cempoalans were accustomed to the hot climate of the coast, but they suffered immensely from the cold of the mountains, the rain, and the hail as they marched towards Tenochtitlan.

Alliance with Tlaxcala

Palacio de Gobierno, Tlaxcala city: Murals - Discussions between Tlaxcalans and Hernán Cortés.

Cortés soon arrived at Tlaxcala, a confederacy of about 200 towns and different tribes, but without central government.

The Otomis initially, and then the Tlaxcalans fought the Spanish in a series of three battles from 2 Sept. to 5 Sept. 1519, and at one point Diaz remarked, "they surrounded us on every side". After Cortes continued to release prisoners with messages of peace, and realizing the Spanish were enemies of Montezuma, Xicotencatl the Elder, and Maxixcatzin, persuaded the Tlaxcalan warleader, Xicotencatl the Younger, that it would be better to ally with the newcomers than to kill them.[20]:143–155,171

The Tlaxcalans main city was Tlaxcala. After almost a century of fighting the Flower Wars, a great deal of hatred and bitterness had developed between the Tlaxcalans and the Aztecs. The Aztecs had already conquered most of the territory around Tlaxcala, and made war on them every year.[20]:154 It is possible that the Aztecs left Tlaxcala independent so that they would have a constant supply of war captives to sacrifice to their gods.[36]

On 23 September 1519, Cortés arrived in Tlaxcala and was greeted with joy by the rulers, who saw the Spanish as an ally against the Aztecs. Due to a commercial blockade by the Aztecs, Tlaxcala was poor, lacking, among other things, both salt and cotton cloth, so they could only offer Cortés and his men food and slaves. Cortés stayed twenty days in Tlaxcala, giving his men time to recover from their wounds. Cortés seems to have won the true friendship and loyalty of the senior leaders of Tlaxcala, among them Maxixcatzin and Xicotencatl the Elder, although he could not win the heart of Xicotencatl the Younger. The Spaniards agreed to respect parts of the city, like the temples, and reportedly took only the things that were offered to them freely.[20]:172–174

As before with other native groups, Cortés preached to the Tlaxcalan leaders about the benefits of Christianity. The Cacques gave Cortes "the most beautiful of their daughters and nieces". Xicotencatl the Elder's daughter was baptized as Dona Luisa, and Maxixcatzin's daughter was baptized as Dona Elvira. They were given by Cortes to Pedro de Alvarado and Juan Velazquez de Leon respectively.[20]:176–178

Legends say that he convinced the four leaders of Tlaxcala to become baptized. Maxixcatzin, Xicotencatl the Elder, Citalpopocatzin and Temiloltecutl received the names of Don Lorenzo, Don Vicente, Don Bartolomé and Don Gonzalo. It is impossible to know if these leaders understood the Catholic faith. In any event, they apparently had no problems in adding the Christian "Dios" (God in Spanish), the lord of the heavens, to their already complex pantheon of gods.

An exchange of gifts was made and thus began the highly significant and effective alliance between Cortés and Tlaxcala.[37]

Cortés marches to Cholula

Meanwhile, ambassadors from Moctezuma, who had been in the Spanish camp after the battles with the Tlaxcalans, continued to press Cortés to take the road to Mexico via Cholula, which was under Aztec control, rather than by Huexotzinco. They were surprised Cortes had stayed in Tlaxcala so long "among a poor and ill-bred people".[20]:166,185–186

Cholula, founded in the year 2,[clarification needed] was one of the most important cities of Mesoamerica, the second largest, and probably the most sacred. Its huge pyramid (larger in volume than the great pyramids of Egypt) made it one of the most prestigious places of the Aztec religion. However, it appears that Cortés perceived Cholula more as a military threat to his rear guard as he marched to Tenochtitlan than a religious center. However, he sent emissaries first to try a diplomatic solution to entering the city.

Cortés, who had not yet decided to start a war with the Aztec Empire, decided to offer a compromise. He accepted the gifts of the Aztec ambassadors, but also accepted the offer of the Tlaxcalans to provide porters and 1000 warriors on his journey to Cholula. He also sent two men, Pedro de Alvarado, and Bernardino Vázquez de Tapia, directly to Tenochtitlan, as ambassadors and to scout a route.[20]:186–188

Massacre of Cholula

The massacre depicted in the 1885 Cyclopaedia of Universal History

There are contradictory reports about what happened at Cholula. Moctezuma had apparently decided to resist with force the advance of Cortés and his troops, and it seems that Moctezuma ordered the leaders of Cholula to try to stop the Spaniards. Cholula had a very small army, because as a sacred city they put their confidence in their prestige and their gods. According to the chronicles of the Tlaxcalteca, the priests of Cholula expected to use the power of Quetzalcoatl, their primary god, against the invaders.[20]:193,199

Cortéz and his men entered Cholula without active resistance. However, they were not met by the city leaders and were not given food and drink on the third day.[20]:192 Cempoalans reported that fortifications were being constructed around the city.[20]:193 The Tlaxcalans were also warning the Spaniards.[20]:193 Finally, La Malinche informed Cortés, after talking to the wife of one of the lords of Cholula, that the locals planned to murder the Spaniards in their sleep.[20]:196 Although he did not know if the rumor was true or not, Cortés ordered a pre-emptive strike, urged on by the Tlaxcalans, the enemies of the Cholulans. Cortés confronted the city leaders in the main temple alleging that they were planning to attack his men. They admitted that they had been ordered to resist by Moctezuma, but they claimed they had not followed his orders. Regardless, on command, the Spaniards seized and killed many of the local nobles to serve as a lesson.[20]:199

They seized the Cholulan leaders Tlaquiach and Tlalchiac and then ordered the city set fire. The troops started in the palace of Xacayatzin, and then on to Chialinco and Yetzcoloc. In letters to his King, Cortés claimed that in three hours time his troops (helped by the Tlaxcalans) killed 3,000 people and burned the city.[38] Another witness, Vázquez de Tapia, claimed the death toll was as high as 30,000. Of course, the reports by the Spaniards were usually gross exaggerations. Since the women and children, and many men, had already fled the city,[20]:200–201 it is unlikely that so many were killed. Regardless, the massacre of the nobility of Cholula was a notorious chapter in the conquest of Mexico.

The Azteca and Tlaxclateca histories of the events leading up to the massacre differ. The Tlaxcalteca claimed that their ambassador Patlahuatzin was sent to Cholula and had been tortured by the Cholula. Thus, Cortés was avenging him by attacking Cholula.[16]:46–47(Historia de Tlaxcala, por Diego Muñoz Camargo, lib. II cap. V. 1550).

The Azteca version put the blame on the Tlaxcalteca claiming that they resented Cortés going to Cholula instead of Huexotzingo.[39]

The massacre had a chilling effect on the other city states and groups affiliated with the Aztecs, as well as the Aztecs themselves. Tales of the massacre convinced the other cities in the Aztec Empire to entertain seriously Cortés' proposals rather than risk the same fate.[20]:203

Cortés then sent emissaries to Moctezuma with the message that the people of Cholula had treated him with trickery and had therefore been punished.[20]:204

In one of his responses to Cortés, Moctezuma blamed the commanders of the local Aztec garrison for the resistance in Cholula, and recognizing that his long-standing attempts to dissuade Cortés from coming to Tenochtitlan with gifts of gold and silver had failed, Moctezuma finally invited the Spaniards to visit his capital city, according to Spanish sources.[20]:205–206


Map of the Valley of Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest
Meeting place of Montezuma and Hernán Cortés
Cortes and his counselor, the Nahua woman La Malinche meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519.

On 8 November 1519 after the fall of Cholula, Cortés and his forces entered Tenochtitlan, the island capital of the Mexica-Aztecs.[20]:219 It is believed that the city was one of the largest in the world at that time.[citation needed] Of all the cities in Europe, only Constantinople was larger than Tenochtitlan. The most common estimates put the population at around 60,000 to over 300,000 people. The largest city in Spain, for example, was Seville, which had a population of only 30,000.

Cortés welcomed by Moctezuma

Accordings to the Aztec chronicles recorded by Sahagún, the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II welcomed Hernán Cortés, El Caudillo, with great pomp. Sahagún reports that Moctezuma welcomed Cortés to Tenochtitlan on the Great Causeway.[20]:216–217 "The chiefs who accompanied Moctcuhzoma were: Cacama, king of Texcoco (altepetl); Tetlepanquetzaltin, king of Tlacopan, Itzcuauhtzin the Tlacochcalcatl, lord of Tlatelolco (altepetl); and Topantemoc, Motechzoma's treasurer in Tlatelolco."[16]:65

A fragment of the greetings of Moctezuma says: "My lord, you have become fatigued, you have become tired: to the land you have arrived. You have come to your city: Mexico, here you have come to sit on your place, on your throne. Oh, it has been reserved to you for a small time, it was conserved by those who have gone, your substitutes... This is what has been told by our rulers, those of whom governed this city, ruled this city. That you would come to ask for your throne, your place, that you would come here. Come to the land, come and rest: take possession of your royal houses, give food to your body."[16]:64[40]

According to Sahagún's manuscript, Moctezuma personally dressed Cortes and his commanders with flowers.[16]:63 In turn, Cortés attempted to embrace the Emperor but was restrained by a courtier.[20]:218

This contradiction between "the arrogant emperor' and the "humble servant of Quetzalcoatl" has been problematic for historians to explain and has led to much speculation. However, all the proscriptions and prohibitions regarding Moctezuma and his court had been established by Moctezuma and were not part of traditional Aztec customs. Those prohibitions had already caused friction between Moctezuma and the pillis (noble classes). There is even an Aztec legend in which Huemac, the legendary last lord of Tollan Xicotitlan, instructed Moctezuma to live humbly and eat only the food of the poor, to divert a future catastrophe. Thus, it seems out of character for Moctezuma to violate rules that he himself had promulgated. Yet, as supreme ruler, he had the power to break his own rules.

Moctezuma had the royal palace of Axayácatl, Moctezuma's father, prepared for Cortes.[20]:218 Later the same day that the Spanish expedition and their allies entered Tenochtitlan, Moctezuma came to visit Cortés and his men. What happened in this second meeting remains controversial. According to several Spanish versions, some written years or decades later, Moctezuma first repeated his earlier, flowery welcome to Cortés on the Great Causeway, but then went on to explain his view of what the Spanish expedition represented in terms of Aztec tradition and lore, including the idea that Cortés and his men (pale, bearded men from the east) were the return of characters from Aztec legend.[20]:220–221

At the end of this explanation, the Emperor pledged his fealty to the King of Spain and accepted Cortés as the King's representative. According to Diaz, Moctezuma said to Cortes, "As for your great king, I am in his debt and will give him of what I possess."[20]:223

While in the Axayacatl palace, the Spaniards discovered the secret room where Moctezuma kept the treasure he had inherited from his father. The treasure consisted of a "quantity of golden objects - jewels and plates and ingots". Diaz noted, "The sight of all that wealth dumbfounded me."[20]:218,242

Cortés later asked Moctezuma to allow him to erect a cross and an image of Virgin Mary next to the two large idols of Huichilobos and Tezcatlipoca, after climbing the one hundred and fourteen steps to the top of the main temple pyramid. Moctezuma and his papas were furious at the suggestion, with Moctezuma claiming his idols, "give us health and rain and crops and weather, and all the victories we desire."[20]:237

Conquistadors and their Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan

The Mexica then killed seven Spanish soldiers Cortes had left on the coast, including Cortes' Villa Rica Constable Juan de Escalante, and many Totonacs. Cortés along with five of his captains and Dona Marina and Aguilar, convinced Moctezuma to "come quietly with us to our quarters, and make no protest...if you cry out, or raise any commotion, you will immediately be killed." Moctezuma was later implicated by Qualpopoca and his captains, who had killed the Spanish soldiers. Though these captains of Moctezuma were sentenced to be "burned to death", Moctezuma continued to remain a prisoner, fearing a "rebellion in his city" or that the Spanish may "try to set up another prince in his place." This, despite Moctezuma's chieftains, nephews and relations suggesting they should attack the Spanish.[20]:243–249

As of 14 November 1519, Moctezuma was Cortes' prisoner as insurance against any further resistance, until the end of May 1520, Moctezuma lived with Cortés in the palace of Axayácatl.

However, Moctezuma continued to act as Emperor, subject to Cortés' overall control.[20]:248 During the period of his imprisonment, Moctezuma stated "he was glad to be a prisoner, since either our gods gave us power to confine him or Huichilobos permitted it." He would even play the game of totoloque with Cortes.[20]:252 After the treason of Cacamatzin, Moctezuma and his Caciques, were forced to take a more formal oath of allegiance to the King of Spain, though Moctezuma "could not restrain his tears".[20]:265 Moctezuma told his Caciques that "their ancestral tradition, set down in their books of records, that men would come from the direction of the sunrise to rule these lands" and that "He believed...we were these men."[20]:264

Cortés sent expeditions to investigate the Aztec sources of gold in the provinces of Zacatula, Tuxtepec, and the land of the Chinantecs.[20]:265–269 Moctezuma was then made to pay a tribute to the Spanish king, which included his father's treasure. These the Spaniards melted down to form gold bars stamped with an iron die.[16]:66–68[20]:270–272 Finally, the Moctezuma let the Spaniards build an altar on their temple, next to the Aztec idols.[20]:277

Finally, the Aztec gods told the Mexican papas, or priests, they would not stay unless the Spaniards were killed and driven back across the sea. Moctezuma warned Cortes to leave at once, as their lives were at risk.[20]:278–279

Many of the nobility rallied around Cuitláhuac,[20]:294 the brother of Moctezuma and his heir-apparent; however, most of them could take no overt action against the Spanish unless the order was given by the Emperor.[20]:247

Defeat of de Narváez

In April 1520, Cortés was told by Moctezuma, that a much larger party of Spaniards consisting of nineteen ships and fourteen hundred soldiers under the command of Pánfilo de Narváez had arrived. Narváez had been sent by Governor Velázquez from Cuba to kill or capture Cortés.[20]:281-281

Leaving his "least reliable soldiers" under the command of Pedro de Alvarado to guard Moctezuma, Cortés set out against Narváez who had advanced onto Cempoala. Cortés surprised his antagonist with a night attack, during which his men wounded Narváez in the eye and took him prisoner. After Cortés permitted the defeated soldiers to settle in the country, they "passed with more or less willingness to Cortes' side." Cortes gained their support when he "promised to make them rich and give them commands." Cortes then made a rapid return to Tenochtitlan, to relieve the besieged Alvarado and his men.[20]:282–284

Cortés led his combined forces on an arduous trek back over the Sierra Madre Oriental, returning to Mexico on St. John's Day June 1520, with 1300 soldiers and 96 horses, plus 2000 Tlascan warriors.[20]:284

Years later, when asked what the new land was like, Cortés crumpled up a piece of parchment, then spread it part way out: "Like this", he said.

The Aztec response

When Cortés returned to Tenochtitlan in late May, he found that Alvarado and his men had attacked and killed many of the Aztec nobility (see the Massacre in the Great Temple) during a religious festival. Alvarado's explanation to Cortés was that the Spaniards had learned that the Aztecs planned to attack the Spanish garrison in the city once the festival was complete, so he had launched a preemptive attack.[20]:286

Considerable doubt has been cast by different commentators on this explanation, which may have been self-serving rationalization on the part of Alvarado, who may have attacked out of fear (or greed) where no immediate threat existed.

In any event, the population of the city rose en masse after the Spanish attack. Fierce fighting ensued, and the Aztec troops besieged the palace housing the Spaniards and Moctezuma. The nobility of Tenochtitlan chose Cuitláhuac as Huey Tlatoani (Emperor). Cortés ordered Moctezuma to speak to his people from a palace balcony and persuade them to let the Spanish return to the coast in peace. Moctezuma was jeered and stones were thrown at him, mortally wounding Moctezuma.[20]:287–294 Aztec sources state the Spaniards killed him.[16]:90

The Spaniards and their allies had to flee the city, as the population of Tenochtitlan had risen against them and their situation could only deteriorate. Because the Aztecs had removed the bridges over the gaps in the causeways that linked the city to the mainland, Cortés' men constructed a portable bridge with which to cross the openings. On the rainy night of 10 July 1520, the Spaniards and their allies set out for the mainland via the causeway to Tlacopan. They placed the portable bridge in the first gap, but at that moment their movement was detected and Aztec forces attacked, both along the causeway and by means of canoes on the lake. The Spanish were thus caught on a narrow road with water or buildings on both sides.[20]:297–299,305

The retreat quickly turned into a rout. The Spanish discovered that they could not remove their portable bridge unit from the first gap, and so had no choice but to leave it behind. The bulk of the Spanish infantry, left behind by Cortés and the other horsemen, had to cut their way through the masses of Aztec warriors opposing them. Many of the Spaniards, weighed down by their armor and booty, drowned in the causeway gaps or were killed by the Aztecs. Much of the wealth the Spaniards had acquired in Tenochtitlan was lost. The bridge was later called "Alvarado's Leap".[20]:299,-300,306

The channel is now a street in Mexico City, called "Puente de Alvarado" (Alvarado's Bridge), because it seemed Alvarado escaped across an invisible bridge. (He may have been walking on the bodies of those soldiers and attackers who had preceded him, given the shallowness of the lake.)

It is said that Cortés, upon reaching the mainland at Tlacopan, wept over their losses. This episode is called "La Noche Triste" (The night of sorrows), and the old tree ("El árbol de la noche triste") where Cortés allegedly cried is still a monument in Mexico.

Cortes had to fight one last battle, before reaching Tlascla. The Aztecs pursued and harassed the Spanish, who, guided by their Tlaxcalan allies, moved around Lake Zumpango toward sanctuary in Tlaxcala. On 14 July 1520 the Aztecs attempted to destroy the Spanish for good at the battle of Otumba. Although hard-pressed, the Spanish infantry was able to hold off the overwhelming numbers of enemy warriors, while the Spanish cavalry under the leadership of Cortés charged through the enemy ranks again and again. When Cortés and his men killed one of the Aztec leaders, the Aztecs broke off the battle and left the field.[20]:303–305

In this retreat the Spaniards suffered heavy casualties, losing 860 soldiers, 72 other Spanish member of Cortes' group, including five women, and a thousand Tlaxcalan warriors. Several Aztec noblemen loyal to Cortés, including Cacamatzin, and their families also perished, including Moctezuma's son and two daughters.[20]:302,305–306

Spaniards find refuge in Tlaxcala

A page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, showing a battle of Otumba.

The Spanish were able then to complete their escape to Tlaxcala. There they were given assistance and comfort, since all 440 of them were wounded, with only 20 horses left. Maxixcatzin and Xicotencatl the Elder, and Chichimecatecle told Cortes' men, "Consider yourselves at home. not think it a small thing that you have escaped with your lives from that strong city...if we thought of you as brave men before, we consider you much braver now."[20]:306–307

Cortes then received reinforcements when the Panuco river settlement was abandoned, and supply ships arrived from Cuba and Spain. Cortes also built 13 sloops for Lake Texcoco. Xicotencatl the Younger, however, sought an alliance with the Mexicans, but was opposed.[20]:309–311

Cortes sent Diego de Ordaz, and the remants of Narvaez' men, on a ship to Spain, and Alonso de Avila on a ship to Santo Domingo to represent his case in the Royal Courts.[20]:311

Cortes was able to pacify the country, after the natives realized the Spaniards put "and end to the rape and robery that the Mexicans practised." Finally, Xicotencatl the Elder, baptized as Don Lorenzo de Vargas, agreed to support Cortes' expedition against Texcoco. He sent more than ten thousand warriors under the command of Chichimecatecle as Cortes marched on the day after Christmas 1520.[20]:309,311–312

Siege of Tenochtitlan

Model depicting the first lake battle between Spanish and Aztecs

The Aztecs were struck by a smallpox plague starting in September 1520, which lasted seventy days. Many were killed, including their new leader, the Emperor Cuitlahuac.[16]:92–93

The joint forces of Tlaxcala and Cortés proved to be formidable. One by one they took over most of the cities under Aztec control, some in battle, others by diplomacy. In the end, only Tenochtitlan and the neighboring city of Tlatelolco remained unconquered or not allied with the Spaniards.[20]:326–352

Cortés then approached Tenochtitlan and mounted a siege of the city that involved cutting the causeways from the mainland and controlling the lake with armed brigantines constructed by the Spanish and transported overland to the lake. The siege of Tenochtitlan lasted eight months. The besiegers cut off the supply of food and destroyed the aqueduct carrying water to the city.[20]:359,368

Despite the stubborn Aztec resistance organized by their new emperor, Cuauhtémoc, the cousin of Moctezuma II, Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco fell on 13 August 1521, during which the Emperor was captured trying to escape the city in a canoe. The siege of the city and its defense had both been brutal. Largely because he wanted to present the city to his king and emperor, Cortés had made several attempts to end the siege through diplomacy, but all offers were rejected. During the battle the defenders cut the beating hearts from seventy Spanish prisoners-of-war at the altar to Huitzilopochtli, an act that infuriated the Spaniards.[20]:386–387,391,401–403

Cortés then ordered the idols of the Aztec gods in the temples taken down and replaced with icons of Christianity. He also announced that the temple would never again be used for human sacrifice. Human sacrifice and reports of cannibalism, common among the natives of the Aztec Empire, had been a major reason motivating Cortés and encouraging his soldiers to avoid surrender while fighting to the death.

Tenochtitlan had been almost totally destroyed by fire and cannon shot during the siege, and once it finally fell the Spanish continued its destruction, as they soon began to establish the foundations of what would become Mexico City on the site. The surviving Aztec people were forbidden to live in Tenochtitlan and the surrounding isles, and were banished to live in Tlatelolco.

Integration into the Spanish Empire

The Council of the Indies was constituted in 1524 and the first Audiencia in 1527. In 1535, Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor (who was as the King of Spain known as Charles I), named the Spanish nobleman Don Antonio de Mendoza the first Viceroy of New Spain. Mendoza was entirely loyal to the Spanish crown, unlike the conqueror of Mexico Hernán Cortés, who had demonstrated that he was independent-minded and defied official orders when he threw off the authority of Governor Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar in Cuba. The name "New Spain" had been suggested by Cortés and was later confirmed officially by Mendoza.

Later Wars of Conquest

"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.

The fall of Tenochtitlan usually is referred to as the main episode in the process of the conquest of Mesoamerica. However, this process was much more complex and took longer than the three years that it took Cortés to conquer Tenochtitlan. It took almost 60 years of wars for the Spaniards to suppress the resistance of the Indian population of Mesoamerica.

Chichimec Wars

After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the region known as La Gran Chichimeca. The expeditions under Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán were particularly harsh on the Chichimeca population, causing them to rebel under the leadership of Tenamaxtli and thus launch the Mixton War.

In 1540, the Chichimecas fortified Mixtón, Nochistlán, and other mountain towns then besieged the Spanish settlement in Guadalajara. The famous conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, coming to the aid of acting governor Cristóbal de Oñate, led an attack on Nochistlán. However, the Chichimecas counter-attacked and Alvarado's forces were routed. Under the leadership of Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza, the Spanish forces and their Indian allies ultimately succeeded in recapturing the towns and suppressing resistance. However, fighting did not completely come to a halt in the ensuing years.

In 1546, Spanish authorities discovered silver in the Zacatecas region and established mining settlements in Chichimeca territory which altered the terrain and the Chichimeca traditional way of life. The Chichimeca resisted the intrusions on their ancestral lands by attacking travelers and merchants along the "silver roads." The ensuing Chichimeca War (1550–1590) would become the longest and costliest conflict between Spanish forces and indigenous peoples in the Americas. The attacks intensified with each passing year. In 1554, the Chichimecas inflicted a great loss upon the Spanish when they attacked a train of sixty wagons and captured more than 30,000 pesos worth of valuables. By the 1580s, thousands had died and Spanish mining settlements in Chichimeca territory were continually under threat. In 1585, Don Alvaro Manrique de Zúñiga, Marquis of Villamanrique, was appointed viceroy. The viceroy was infuriated when he learned that some Spanish soldiers had begun supplementing their incomes by raiding the villages of peaceful Indians in order to sell them into slavery. With no military end to the conflict in sight, he was determined to restore peace to that region and launched a full-scale peace offensive by negotiating with Chichimeca leaders and providing them with lands, agricultural supplies, and other goods. This policy of "peace by purchase" finally brought an end to the Chichimeca War.[41]

Conquest of the Yucatán Peninsula

The Spanish conquest of Yucatán took almost 170 years. The whole process could have taken longer were it not for three separate epidemics that took a heavy toll on the Native Americans, causing the population to fall in half and weakening the traditional social structure.[42]

The Aztecs under Spanish rule

Cristóbal de Olid led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquests of Jalisco and Colima of West Mexico.

The Aztec Empire ceased to exist with the Spanish final conquest of Tenochtitlan in August 1521. The empire had been composed of separate city-states that had either allied with or been conquered by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, and rendered tribute to the Mexica while maintaining their internal ruling structures. Those polities now came under Spanish rule, also retaining their internal structures of ruling elites, tribute paying commoners, and land holding and other economic structures largely intact. Two key works by historian Charles Gibson, Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century (1952)[43] and his monograph The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519-1810 (1964)[44] were central in reshaping the historiography of the indigenous and their communities from the Spanish Conquest to the 1810 Mexican independence era.[45]

Scholars who were part of a branch of Mesoamerican ethnohistory, more recently called the New Philology have, using indigenous texts in the indigenous languages, been able to examine in considerable detail how the indigenous lived during the era of Spanish colonial rule. A major work that utilizes colonial-era indigenous texts as its main source is James Lockhart's The Nahuas After the Conquest: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology.[46] The key to understanding how considerable continuity of pre-Conquest indigenous structures was possible was the Spanish colonial utilization of the indigenous nobility. In the colonial era, the indigenous nobility were largely recognized as nobles by the Spanish colonial regime, with privileges including the noble Spanish title don for noblemen and doña for noblewomen. To this day, the title of Duke of Moctezuma is held by a Spanish noble family. A few of the indigenous nobility learned Spanish. Spanish friars taught indigenous tribes to write their own languages in Latin letters, which soon became a self-perpetuating tradition at the local level.[47] Their surviving writings are crucial in our knowledge of colonial era Nahuas.

The first mendicants in central Mexico, particularly the Franciscans and Dominicans learned the indigenous language of Nahuatl, in order to evangelize to the indigenous people in their native tongue. Early mendicants created texts in order to forward the project of Christianization. Particularly important were the 1571 Spanish-Nahuatl dictionary compiled by the Franciscan Fray Alonso de Molina,[48] and his 1569 bilingual Nahuatl-Spanish confessional manual for priests.[49] A major project by the Franciscans in Mexico was the compilation of knowledge on Nahua religious beliefs and culture that friar Bernardino de Sahagún, oversaw, using indigenous informants, resulting in a number of important texts and culminating in a 12 volume text, The General History of the Things of New Spain published in English as the Florentine Codex. The Spanish crown via the Council of the Indies and the Franciscan order in the late sixteenth century became increasingly hostile to works by religious in the indigenous languages, concerned that they were heretical and an impediment to the Indians' true conversion.[50]

To reward Spaniards who participated in the conquest of what is now contemporary Mexico, the Spanish crown authorized grants of native labor, in particular the assignment of entire indigenous communities to labor via the Encomienda system. The indigenous were not slaves under this system, chattel bought and sold or removed from their home community, but the system was still one of forced labor. The indigenous people of Central Mexico had practices rendering labor and tribute products to their polity's elites and those elites to the Mexica overlords in Tenochtitlan, so the Spanish system of encomienda was built on pre-existing patterns of labor service.

The Spanish conquerors in Mexico during the early colonial era lived off the labor of the indigenous peoples. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the native peoples, Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas suggested importing black slaves to replace them. Las Casas later repented when he saw the even worse treatment given to the black slaves.[51]

Evangelization of Mexico

The other discovery that perpetuated this system of indigenous forced labor were the extensive silver mines discovered at Potosi, in Upper Peru (now Bolivia) and other places in the Spanish empire in the New World that were worked for hundreds of years by forced native labor and contributed most of the wealth that flowed to Spain. Spain spent enormous amounts of this wealth hiring mercenaries to fight the Protestant Reformation and to halt the Turkish invasions of Europe. The silver was used to purchase commercial goods abroad, as European manufactured goods were not in demand in Asia and the Middle East. The Manila Galleon brought in far more silver direct from South American mines to China than the overland Silk Road, or even European trade routes in the Indian Ocean could.

The Aztec education system was abolished and replaced by a very limited church education. Even some foods associated with Mesoamerican religious practice, such as amaranth, were forbidden.[citation needed]

In the 16th century, perhaps 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. They were joined by 450,000 in the next century.[52] Unlike the English-speaking colonists of North America, the majority of the Spanish colonists were single men who married or made concubines of the natives,[citation needed] and were even encouraged to do so by Queen Isabella during the earliest days of colonization. As a result of these unions, as well as concubinage[citation needed] and secret mistresses, mixed race individuals known as "Mestizos" came into being as the majority of the Mexican population in the centuries following the Spanish conquest.

Cultural depictions

The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire is the subject of an opera, La Conquista (2005) and of a set of six symphonic poems, La nueva España (1992–99) by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero.

Cortés's conquest has been depicted in numerous television documentaries. These include in an episode of Engineering an Empire as well as in the BBC series Heroes and Villains, with Cortés being portrayed by Brian McCardie.

Captain from Castile (1947) is about early Cortez and the Aztec.

The expedition was also partially included in the animated film The Road to El Dorado as the main characters Tulio and Miguel end up as stowaways on Hernán Cortés' fleet to Mexico. Here Cortés is a merciless and ambitious villain, leading a quest to find El Dorado the legendary city of gold in the New World, he is voiced by Jim Cummings.

The aftermath of the Spanish conquest, including the Aztecs' struggle to preserve their cultural identity, is the subject of the acclaimed Mexican feature film, The Other Conquest, directed by Salvador Carrasco.

See also


  1. "Indigeniso e hispanismo". Arqueología mexicana. Retrieved 20 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (Spanish)
  2. James Lockhart and Stuart Schwartz, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983. See especially chapter 3, "From islands to mainland: the Caribbean phase and subsequent conquests."
  3. James Lockhart and Stuart Schwartz,Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 80
  4. Francisco López de Gómara, Cortés: The Life of the Conqueror by His Secretary, translated by Lesley Byrd Simpson. Berkeley: University of California Press 1964, pp. 207-08.
  5. Ida Altman, et al. The Early History of Greater Mexico, Pearson, 2003, p. 59.
  6. Sarah Cline, "Conquest Narratives," in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerica, David Carrasco, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2001, vol. 1, p 248
  7. Ida Altman, Sarah Cline, and Javier Pescador, The Early History of Greater Mexico, chapter 4, "Narratives of the Conquest." Pearson, 2003, pp. 73-96.
  8. Patricia de Fuentes, ed. The Conquistadors: First-Person Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1993. Previously published by Orion Press 1963.
  9. "Two Letters of Pedro de Alvarado" in The Conquistadors, Patricia de Fuente, editor and translator. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1993, pp. 182-196.
  10. "The Cronicle of the Anonymous Conquistador" in The Conquistadors: First-person Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico Patricia de Fuente, (editor and trans). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1993, pp. 165-181.
  11. James Lockhart, We People Here, University of California Press 1991, pp. 289-297
  12. Fernando Alva Ixtlilxochitil, Ally of Cortés: Account 13 of the Coming of the Spaniards and the Beginning of the Evangelical Law. Douglass K. Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press 1969
  13. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, The Conquest of New Spain, 1585 Revision translated by Howard F. Cline, with an introduction by S.L. Cline. University of Utah Press 1989.
  14. Fray Diego Durán, The History of the Indies of New Spain[1581], Trans., annotated, and with an introduction by Doris Heyden. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.
  15. James Lockhart, We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, University of California Press 1991,pp. 256-273.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 León-Portilla, M. 1992, 'The Broken Spears: The Aztec Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0807055014
  17. William Hickling Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, introduction by James Lockhart. New York: The Modern Library, 2001
  18. S.L. Cline "Introduction," History of the Conquest of New Spain, 1585 Revision by Bernardino de Sahagún, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press 1989.
  19. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, General History of the Things of New Spain (The Florentine Codex). Book 12. Arthur J.O. Anderson and Charles Dibble, translators. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
  20. 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15 20.16 20.17 20.18 20.19 20.20 20.21 20.22 20.23 20.24 20.25 20.26 20.27 20.28 20.29 20.30 20.31 20.32 20.33 20.34 20.35 20.36 20.37 20.38 20.39 20.40 20.41 20.42 20.43 20.44 20.45 20.46 20.47 20.48 20.49 20.50 20.51 20.52 20.53 20.54 20.55 20.56 20.57 20.58 20.59 20.60 20.61 20.62 20.63 20.64 20.65 20.66 Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0140441239
  21. Camilla Townsend, "Burying the White Gods: New Perspectives on the Conquest of Mexico" The American Historical ReviewVol. 108, No. 3 (June 2003), pp. 659-687
  22. Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Oxford University Press (2003), ISBN 0-19-516077-0
  23. Schwartz, Stuart B., ed. Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Bedforf, 2000.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Hassig, Ross, Mexico and the Spanish Conquest. Longman: London and New York, 1994. p. 45.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Ida Altman, S.L. (Sarah) Cline, The Early History of Greater Mexico, Pearson, 2003, p. 54
  26. Hassig, Ross, Mexico and the Spanish Conquest. Longman: London and New York, 1994. p. 46.
  27. Thomas, Hugh. Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés, and the fall of Old Mexico p. 141
  28. James Lockhart, Spanish Peru, 1532-1560., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 1968.
  29. Guerrero is reported to have responded, "Brother Aguilar, I am married and have three children, and they look on me as a Cacique here, and a captain in time of war [...] But my face is tattooed and my ears are pierced. What would the Spaniards say if they saw me like this? And look how handsome these children of mine are!" (p.60).
  30. Later in the voyage a young woman, La Malinche, would be given to Cortés as a slave by the Chontal Maya inhabitants of the Tabasco coast. La Malinche spoke Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs and a regional lingua franca, as well as Chontal Maya, which was also understood by Aguilar. Cortés would be able to use the two of them to communicate with the central Mexican peoples and the Aztec court. See See The Conquest of New Spain, pp.85–87.
  31. "Conquistadors - Cortés". PBS. Retrieved 31 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Tuck, Jim (9 October 2008). "Affirmative action and Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) : Mexico History". Retrieved 31 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. See: Restall, Matthew. Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Oxford University Press: Oxford and New York, 2003.
  34. Matthew Restall, "Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest", 2003
  35. Cortés Burns His Boats
  36. "Conquistadors - Cortés". PBS. Retrieved 31 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Hugh Tomas, The conquest of Mexico, 1994.
  38. "Empires Past: Aztecs: Conquest". Retrieved 31 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Informantes de Sahagún: Códice Florentino, lib. XII, cap. X.; Spanish version by Angel Ma. Garibay K.
  40. Anonymous informants of Sahagún, Florentine codex, book XII, chapter XVI, translation from Nahuatl by Angel Ma. Garibay.
  41. "John P. Schmal". Retrieved 31 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Nancy Marguerite Farriss (1984). Maya Society Under Colonial Rule: The Collective Enterprise of Survival. Princeton UP. pp. 58–59.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Charles Gibson, Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century, New Haven: Yale University Press 1952
  44. Charles Gibson, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519-1810, Stanford: Stanford University Press 1964.
  45. Review by Benjamin Keen in Hispanic American Historical Review Vol. 45, No. 3 (Aug., 1965), pp. 477-480
  46. James Lockhart, The Nahuas After the Conquest: Postconquest Central Mexican History and Philology, Stanford: Stanford University Press 1992.
  47. Frances Karttunen, "Aztec Literacy," in George A. Coller et al.,, eds. The Inca and Aztec States, pp. 395-417. New York: Academic Press 1982.
  48. Fray Alonso de Molina, Vocabulario en lengua cstellana y mexicana y mexcana y castellana(1571), Mexico: Editorial Porrúa, 1970
  49. Fray Alonso de Molina, Confessionario mayor en la lengua castellana y mexicana (1569), With an introduction by Roberto Moreno. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicos, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  50. Howard F. Cline, "Evolution of the Historia General" in Handbook of Middle American Indians, Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, vol. 13, part 2, Howard F. Cline, volume editor, Austin: University of Texas Pres, 1973 p.196.
  51. Blackburn 1997: 136; Friede 1971: 165–166
  52. Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Alva Ixtlilxochitil, Fernando. Ally of Cortés: Account 13 of the Coming of the Spaniards and the Beginning of the Evangelical Law. Douglass K. Ballentine, translator. El Paso: Texas Western Press 1969
  • Anonymous Conqueror, the (1917) [1550]. Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan. Marshall Saville (trans). New York: The Cortés Society.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Cortés, Hernán. Letters – available as Letters from Mexico translated by Anthony Pagden (1986) ISBN 0-300-09094-3
  • de Fuentes, Patricia, ed. The Conquistadors: First-Person Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press 1993. Previously published by Orion Press 1963.
  • Francisco López de Gómara, Hispania Victrix; First and Second Parts of the General History of the Indies, with the whole discovery and notable things that have happened since they were acquired until the year 1551, with the conquest of Mexico and New Spain
  • Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain – available as The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico: 1517-1521 ISBN 0-306-81319-X
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.) (1992) [1959]. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans.), Lysander Kemp (Spanish-English trans.), Alberto Beltran (illus.) (Expanded and updated ed.). Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-5501-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lockhart, James. We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1991.
  • Sahagún, Fray Bernardino. General History of the Things of New Spain (The Florentine Codex). Book 12. Arthur J.O. Anderson and Charles Dibble, translators. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
  • Schwartz, Stuart B., ed. Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Bedford, 2000.

Secondary sources

Additional bibliography

  • Brandt, Anthony. "Perfect storm at Tenochtitlan 1521: How Cortes's band of hidalgos destroyed the Mexica Empire." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (2014): 58.
  • Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
  • Daniel, Douglas A. "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs." Anthropological Quarterly (1992): 187-194.
  • Francisco Nunez de Pineda y Bascunan. “Happy Captivity.” In Born in Blood and Fire: Latin American Voices, edited by John Charles Chasteen. 42-48. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011.
  • Garofalo, Leo J., and Erin E. O'Connor. Documenting Latin America : Gender, Race, and Empire, vol. 1. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2011.
  • O'Connor, Erin, and Leo Garofalo. Mothers Making Latin America.
  • Raudzens, George. "So Why Were the Aztecs Conquered, and What Were the Wider Implications? Testing Military Superiority as a Cause of Europe's Pre-Industrial Colonial Conquests." War in History (1995): 87-104.
  • Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
  • White, John Manchip. "Cortes and the Downfall of the Aztec Empire: A Study in a Conflict of Cultures." The Hispanic American Historical Review (1972): 467-468.

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